A Catholic Jew Pontificates

I love opinionated non-PC people. This blog is to vent my opinions on life, the universe and everything. Which is 42 which in gematria is "My Heart" (LBY) according to Rabbi Abulafia. The Divine Heart is the centre of everything.

Saturday, October 14, 2017

Third Temple and the True High Priest: R1b L584


If the Jewish Temple was rebuilt then a High Priest would need to be appointed and they would have to be a true genetic descendant of Aaron. They would also need to have Cohen status in the orthodox Jewish Synagogue. Today many who claim Cohen status have different y-dna such as J1, J2 and E-M215 as well as R1b and R1a and others.

As I have demonstrated elsewhere Cohen J1 and J2 are of Ishmaelite Samaritan ancestry not descended from Aaron in the direct male line. The Muslim prophet Mohammed and his male line are descendants of Abraham's son Ishmael by his Egyptian wife Hagar through his son Kedar (J1 y-dna). J2 are the descendants of Ishmael's son Nabioth. Abraham is the ancestor of all those desended from IJK y-dna. I y-dna haplogroup descend from Ishmael's son Massa and K are the descendants of Abraham's son Isaac by Sarah and his sons by his wife Keturah. E-M215 is of Javanite Samaritan ancestry on the direct male line. E-M215 haplogroup descends from Javan the son of Japheth. In fact the true priestly line that has remained among the Jewish people is R1b L584. There are also many R1b L584 found among the Assyrian and Armenian Christians who descend from the numerous priests who the New Testament states embraced the Christian faith. R1b Z2103 is the marker of the Jews of R1b ancestry of the southern Kingdom of Judah. Thus the three main groups of Z2103 are the Judahites (including some of the Davidic House) of R1b M2106, Levites of R1b L277.1 and the Cohanim of R1b L584.

Yeshua or Joshua the son of Jehozadak who was the first Jewish High Priest after the Babylonian Exile was most likely the founder and ancestor of R1b Z2103 L584. His son the High Priest Jehoiachim or Joachim was in the time of Judith and the Babylonian King Nabonidus the Assyrian. The last of the Ishmaelite (J1) High Priests of the Samaritans was Hananiah who was replaced by Manasseh (J2) a son or son-law of Sanballat the Persian Ruler of Samaria and Hananiah fled Samaria and converted to Judaism in Jerusalem. He married one of the daughters of the High Priestly family of the Jews. He was the founder of the Ishmaelite priests in Judaism. 

A descendant of the Samaritan High Priest Manasseh called Zadoch (descended from Ishmael's son Nabioth) was also a convert to Judaism after the destruction of the Samaritan Temple and the ancestor of the Sadducee priests. Allied with the Ishmaelite priests in Judaism were the Shammai Pharissees. Shammai also being of Samaritan (shamerim) ancestry. Islam was influenced by this rigidly observant version of Ishmaelite Judaism and Mohammed through his ancestor Adnan was descended from this Jewish Ishmaelite lineage that went back to the Samaritan Ishmaelite priests who descended from Ishmael's son Kedar. St Paul in Galatians 4 mentions this legalistic Ishmaelite group within Judaism.

However only a Jewish High Priest (Kohen haGadol) can be selected from those of a lineage in which there have been no marriages with converts, divorcees or gentiles. A High Priest may be appointed by the Sanhedrin and the King or just by the King. Today the authority to appoint a High Priest may lie with the President of Israel who is the ceremonial Head of State. The present President is Reuven Rivlin a descendant of the disciples of the Vilna Gaon who settled in Israel in the early 1800's.

Some believe the third Anti-Christ (possibly of N1c-L666 y-dna of the Tribe of Dan) may rebuild the Temple and appoint a false High- Priest (probably a Cohen claimant of J1 or J2 y-dna). He will be defeated by the Great Monarch of Davidic (R1b L21 y-dna) lineage who may appoint a High Priest for the Jewish people of the true Aaronite lineage of R1b L584 y-dna.

Thursday, October 05, 2017

Y-dna Haplogroup Tree from a Biblical Perspective


Adam and Eve were tall and had golden auburn hair with bronze red skin and green eyes similar to certain red haired bronze skinned modern day Asians and Genghis Khan. Before the Flood mankind had already developed into different racial groups. Firstly, those like Adam with red hair, bronze skin and green eyes which Adan the wife of Japheth brought into the post flood world. Secondly, those like Noah and his family with blonde hair and white skin with blue eyes. Thirdly, those with black hair, eyes and skin like Nahal the wife of Ham. And there were other mixes. Shem's wife Lebab the Tzadika (Sadek) was a close relative of Noah's wife Emzara. Adan and Nahal according to ancient writings were descended from the Cainite House of Isis on different branches. The first three cities were named for the wives of Ham, Japheth and Shem. The cities were known as the Black, Red and White cities as they were built from huge Black, Red and White dolerite bricks in a process now lost. 









The name Adan means red or judgement, the name Nahal means black or deep and Lebab means white or heart. Japheth means beautiful or bright, Ham means heat or hot and Shem means name or essence. The sons of Japheth (DE) have the gift of aesthetic intelligence, the sons of Ham (AB) have he gift or talent of emotional intelligence and the Sons of Shem (CF) have intellectual intelligence. It would seem that while the daughters of Adan (Neanderthal) have passed on their physical features and genes (autosomal) to humanity the direct maternal line has died out. In the same way the daughters of Nahal (Denisovan) have passed on their physical features and genes (autosomal) to humanity they have also died out in the direct maternal line. 


Today all women descend from the daughters of Lebab on the direct maternal line as far as we know. Lebab descends in a direct maternal line from Azura the wife of Abel. Abel and Azura's daughter Aklia married Seth. Nahal and Adan maternally descend from Luluwa the daughter of Awan the wife of Cain. Adan was descended from Adah one of the wives of Lamech of the House of Cain and Nahal from Naamah the daughter of Zillah another wife of Lamech of the House of Cain. Adah and Zillah were the daughters of Kenan son of Enosh and his wife Isis. Isis was the daughter of Enoch son of Cain and his wife Luluwa.

Pangaea after the Flood but before the Destruction of Babel and the Division of the Earth. Before the Flood the Interior Sea had a large mountain in its midst where the Garden of Eden was located. There may have been another smaller circular sea or well watered valley or depression in the area between India, Cipangu (now under the waters of the Pacific Ocean) and Tibet.

More recent view of the ydna Haplotree now accepted by many in Academia. It is slowly coming to look like my haplotree shown above.


This tree demonstrates that in the past there have been environmental influences including catastrophic events on the formation of mutations in which people of the same dna lineage as a group receive a new mutation rather than just one individual as happens at other times. However when groups move away from the geographical region as the others who share their dna, they group mutate differently to the parent or sibling group.

For example in the days of Jacob his six sons by Leah had a group mutation (probably due to increased radiation). This shared mutation was M343 which they passed to all their direct male descendants. However a group of Reubenites left the other Israelites who were in Egypt and settled in Turkey (Anatolia) where they received a group mutation of M335. The rest of the Reubenites who remained with the other Israelites in Egypt did not share this mutation. Those who remained in Egypt were to share the mutations of L278 and L754 which those now settled in Turkey didn't.

However some branches of the ydna tree are due to a single mutation in an individual. For example Moses received a mutation that his older brother Aaron didn't that we call V88. Both Moses' sons by his white Midianite wife Zipporah and his Black Cushite wife inherited V88. However his white son or sons received the mutation of M18 whereas his black sons didn't and they received their own unique marker Y7777. Of course when I say son or sons I mean genetic sons rather than his immediate son or sons. His black sons had been conceived in Ethiopia whereas his white sons were conceived in Midian in Arabia. The other Israelites who were still slaves in Egypt descended from Jacob and Leah received mutation L388 as a sign of their having gone through the events of the Exodus. In a sense all those men who have L388 today as one of their markers know that their direct male ancestor was in Egypt during the Exodus in the 14th century BC. In the same way Joseph's descendants that were in Egypt had the SRY1532.2 marker of R1a ydna and the Benjaminites of M424 of Q and the Tribes of Jacob from Bilhah and Zilpah have M214 of NO ydna (Naphtali and Dan belong to N and Gad and Asher to O). The main line Naphtali clan is N1c M178 (Siberian) and the main clan of Dan is N1c L666 (Russian). The socalled Kama culture in Russia was the culture of the Tribe of Dan probably after 600 BC.

The clan of Zerah of Judah remained in Egypt and then went to the Hebrew-Egyptian colonies where they received the M73/ M478 marker, whereas the Israelites of the Leah tribes who wandered in the Wilderness have the P297 marker and those of the Joseph tribes received the M17/M198 marker of R1a ydna. The marker M269 is the marker of the Leahites who lived in Israel in the time of the Judges including Boaz and his descendants Jesse and David who belonged to R1b M269 and the Joseph tribes marker was M417 of R1a. Akhenaten and Tutankhamen also belong to this M269 ydna which proves Velikovsky's claims about them living after the time of King David and are in fact his descendants.

At the time of the Assyrian invasion of Israel a large portion of the population was captured and moved by the Assyrians to a place where these Judahites and Levites received the PF7562 marker but not the L23. Whereas those of the Leahites of the Ten Tribes taken into Exile by the Assyrians, the Leahite Jews of the Babylonian Exile, those of the Tribe of Zebulon living in Western Europe and the Davidic House of Nathan living in Australia received the L23 marker due to the celestial and catastrophic events of that time. It would seem that the Judahites taken into Exile by the Assyrians were in an area where they where shielded in some way from the effects that caused L23 in the other Leahites. Or did their new PF7562 marker mean that the effects of the radiation of that time manifested differently in their genetic code than those Leahites that didn't receive that marker?

It would seem that the Jews of Judah received a mutation we call Z2103 before the events that caused L51 and L11/P310 in the other Leahite Israelites of L23 ydna.The Leahite Jews received this marker around 580 BC (around 700 BC in the Accepted Chronology of modern academia) and the other Leahites without Z2103 received L51 around 550 BC and L11 around 530 BC. The Zebulonite clans of Western Europe received their distinct U106 marker around 500 BC as did those clans of Issachar who had moved into the Russian Steppes and their marker was DF100/S1194. These clans of Issachar settled in the Pomerania area of Europe and were known as the Seubi. It would seem that the period around 650-350 was a time of cataclysm that led to many genetic changes in rapid succession to whole groups of people as it had at the time of the Exodus and in the time of Abraham and the Patriarchs of the Hebrews as well as at the time of the fall of the Tower of Babel.

The bulk of the remaining Leahite tribes including the Milesian House of Nathan that had moved to the Near East, Turkey and Egypt received the P312/S116 marker after 500 BC. At this time those of the House of Nathan also received the distinct S245/Z260 marker followed soon after by the L21 marker. This was the last of the group mutations in this lineage and individual mutations would be the general rule of nature from about 400 BC (differing in different groups). The remaining eastern clans of Zebulon, also around this time just after 500 BC, received the L238/S182 marker as they moved into the Russian Steppes.

The remaining Leahite clans in the Middle East from the Tribes of Issachar, Reuben, Simeon and Levi received their Z40481 marker before they went their separate ways. After this these clans of Issachar received the DF19/S232 marker in the Russian Steppes and they were known as the Sacae, Scythians and Saxons. This was to be the last of their group mutations. The remnant of Levi received the ZZ337 marker. The Tribes of Simeon and Reuben that were still in the Middle East received the ZZ11 around 460 BC.  Simeon fled across the sea to Spain where they received the DF27/S250 marker and the remaining clans of Reuben received the U152/S28 marker while still in the Middle East. One group of Reuben went to the south east and and the others west.


Recently I have been reflecting on the latest y-dna charts of R1b L21 of which R1b M222 belongs and the Davidic genealogies which I have been researching and studying for nearly 40 years. Different studies led me to the conclusion that Joseph of Arimathea or his son may have been the founder as well as ancestor of M222 rather than High King Niall of the Nine Hostages of Ireland. However as further research has progressed I think that the original idea that M222 began with Niall or his father or grandfather to be closer to the truth. It is from Niall's ancestor Nuadh or Nathan (Nahori) the Fisher Lord of Glastonbury (b.115 AD d. 171 AD) the son of Rabbi Meir that M222 seems to originate. His son went to Ireland and was known as Mar Eoghan (Ugaine Mor/Johannan/Angus Og) King of Munster and was the founder of the Irish M222 clan and was the ancestor of Niall of the Nine Hostages. The Southern English branch of M222 came from Nuadh's sons who remained in Britain.

St Joseph of Arimathea is the ancestor of R1b L21 DF13 Z39589 y-dna. St Joseph of Arimathea is also the ancestor of those who descend from M222 but he belongs to R1b L21 which is the ydna of the Davidic House of Nathan. St Joseph of Arimathea was the British Jewish Christian Nasi or Exilarch (Rosh Golus) at Glastonbury in Somerset. Niall is a male line descendant of Joseph's great grandson Zerah (Adon Glas) the Lord of Glastonbury (the Glas or Golus Isle) the son of Nathan the Red (Nectan Ruadh/Nuadh Nect) who lived from 30 -90 AD who is recorded as an Irish High King (Ard Ri) but was in reality the Jewish Christian Nasi or Exilarch known as a Rosh Golus (Head of the Exile) or Dayag Adon (Fisher Lord) of Ireland (Erani/ Hibernia). It is thus likely that R1b L21 DF13 DF49 (ancestral or upstream of M222) began with Zerah Adon Glas of what would one day be southern England (south-west Britain). DF 23 may be the branch of L21 descended from Rabbi Meir (Meir Duach/Raibh Dearg) the Dagda (Dayag Adon/Fisher Lord) [b.99 d.162] and famous Rabbi related to Nero. He was not the grandson of Nero as told in Jewish legend but it was his great grandmother Julia Nero that belonged to the same Nero family as the Emperor Nero.


The Royal House of Stuart are also descendants of St Joseph of Arimathea. Through the Dukes and Lords of Brittany the Stuarts trace back to Gabhran the Ruler of Dal Riata and all Britain and Brittany through his great-grandson Hoel Mawr Duke of Brittany. Gabhran or Gadeon was the son of a Jewish British Prince Huna Mar (Cunomor) who became a Babylonian Exilarch in the 6th century. Gabhran's great-grandson Hoel Mawr (son of Eochaidh Buidhe King of Dal Riata the son of King Aedan) was the founder of R1b L21 DF13 CTS658/DF41. All the later Babylonian Exilarchs descend from Huna Mar through Gabhran's brother the famous King Arthur Mor who was King at first of the Pennines and Goddodin before becoming the great British King Emperor.

King Aedan of Dal Riata and High King of Britain's grandson Domnall or Donald Brecc King of Dalriata is most likely the ancestor of R1b L21 L1335 ydna. Through Aedan's son King Eochaidh Buidhe of the Dal Riata Scots descends King Alpin of the Picts the father of Kenneth I Mac Alpin King of Scots and Picts. The MacKinnon and Buchanan Clan founders descend from the two sons of Constantine III (Kyan/ Kinnon) King of Scots (Alba) Anselan O Kyan and Findanus MacKinnon. The Welsh branch of L371 of R1b L21 may descend from King Aedan's son Arthur who was also a King of Gwent as well as a Dal Riatan Prince. This Dal Riatan Arthur and King Arthur Mor have been confused in the legendary tales of King Arthur.

Arthur Mor or his son or grandson was probably the founder of R1b L21 DF13 S470/Z251. It is from King Arthur Mor through his grandson Mar Ithiel (Ida of Bernicia) of S11556 that the later Babylonian Exilarchs and the Jewish Kings of Septimania in France descend on the direct male line. The Danish Royal House of Oldenburgh descends from him via the Exilarch family that went to Barcelona in the 10th century (of FGC11986). The Norman Kings of England descend from Machir Theodoric the Jewish King of Narbonne through his eldest son Mar Menachem (of Z18092) who was also known as Hernaut and Harald who married the Danish heiress Hilda. These lines also trace back to Nathan the Red of Ireland through his other son Mar Phares of Caledonia who was the first Jewish Christian Nasi or Exilarch (Guleta/ Guletic) of Scotland (Scotti/ Caledonia/ Alba). The Carolingian Kings and Charlemagne are also direct male line descendants of Mar Phares via Angus (Anlach/ St Brychan/ Banlach/ Ban) King of Breicheiniog in Wales the brother of Huna Mar and father of Lancelot. The Welf or Guelf family of Queen Victoria also descends from the Jewish Exilarchic family in Barcelona in the 10th century. Both the House of Oldenburgh and the House of Welf-Este descend from Mar Barzilay of Barcelona on the direct male line. The Spanish Kings of Castile, Aragon and Leon descend from Machir Theodoric the Jewish King of Narbonne through the Counts of Burgundy from his eldest son Mar Menachem (Harald Hildetonn/ Hernaut de Gironde).The Carolingian Kings may be of the Z16500 branch of R1b L21 ydna. The Anglo-Saxon Kings of Kent and Wessex descend from Athelbert King of Kent (d.616) of FGC13899 a grandson of King Arthur Mor. Z16943 descends from another grandson of Arthur Mor who is possibly the ancestor of the House of Savoy.




Z16246 comes from the DF 63 branch of Milesian R1b L21 ydna haplogroup. They are a Milesian male line group. It is likely that DF63 are maternal descendants of Breoghan or Brennius who led the combined Gaelic and Celtic forces against the Greeks in the Balkans around 280 BC. It would seem that DF63, from which Z16246 descends, is from a son-in-law of Breoghan (Brennius) who remained in Europe as the leader of a contingent of Milesians that allied with the European Kelts while the other Milesians invaded Ireland and Britain. This was Barbe or Barbetruc a Milesian Prince descended on the direct male line from Allot the Milesian King who descends from Nathaniel of Jerusalem.


FGC11134 haplogroup of R1b L21 is the branch of the Milesians descended from Heber who invaded Ireland with Heremon and settled in the south of Ireland. DF1/L513 is most likely the haplogroup of the Milesians descended from Heremon who invaded Ireland with Heber. ZZ10 is most likely the clan of Ir of the Milesians. The socalled Dalcassians are probably descended from Conmac the son of Fergus MacRoy King of Ulster who has been confused with Cormac Cas the son of Oiliol Olum the King of Munster in the Irish genealogies. Conmac and Fergus descend from Olum Fodla and Ir.

DF 21 haplogroup are most likely the descendants of St Joseph of Arimathea's brother Nathan ben Eli (Nascien/ Tenaufan/ Tasciovanus) King of the Regnoi and Catevaullani. He is the ancestor of many of the early British Kings. FGC5494 may be the descendants of the Beredi or Breoghanites who settled in Britain when the others invaded Ireland.



Monday, October 02, 2017

Divine Will, 36 and the Mothers:A Hebrew Catholic Insight

"...The length of the rod is six cubits. Each cubit is six handbreadths. See, therefore, how all the lights are bound together in this light, which is called "All," since all are contained within it. There are six directions [the six ketzavot, alluding to the six sefirot from Chesed to Yesod, all of which are included in Yesod], and when they are all connected to one another, they make thirty-six, corresponding to the length of this rod [36 handbreadths]. (see the writings of Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzato (Ramchal) in "The Future Temple" ).

The "All" (Kol) represent the 10th sefirah of Malchut (Kingdom) and Shekhinah (feminine Presence). This light that unites all the sefirot (emanations/ attributes and mentalities) from Keter (Crown of the Divine Will) till Malchut (kingdom) is called the Kingdom of the Divine Will and the Kingdom of Holiness. This is the primordial light of Genesis 1:2 according to Rabbi Dovid Brown that he connects with the 36 hours that Adam lived in Divine Will in the Garden of Eden on the sixth day until the Sabbath. 

The Jerusalem Talmud in Brachot 8:5 states, in regard to the light of the 36 hours, that with this light created on the first day Adam could see from one end of the world to the other. When he fell on the Sabbath day he experienced darkness for the first time and was terrified that the Serpent would bite him in the darkness. God then gave him two flints in order to create fire. These two flints or helps represent Our Lady and Luisa who will help enkindle the light of the Divine Will in fallen mankind. Thus Adam's blessing "Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, who creates lights of fire" alludes to Our Lady and Luisa.

Just as the Primordial Light of the hidden Kingdom of the Divine Will manifested in the 36 hours of dwelling or living in Divine Will on the sixth day of Creation so the light of the Divine Will in the 36 volumes of heaven through Luisa Piccarreta was manifested in the sixth millennium since the fall of Adam. This primordial light of the kingdom of the Divine Will was hidden in Miriam's well at the twilight between the first and second days of Creation and manifested through the mouth of Miriam's Well on the sixth day leading into the first Sabbath (see Genesis1). Thus we can say that Miriam's Well represents the mystery or primordial concept of Our Lady in Eternity in Divine Will and the Mouth of Miriam's Well represents the mystery or primordial concept of Luisa in Eternity in Divine Will. 

The concept of the mouth of the well is found in Genesis 29 where Rachel's Well is also called the Well of the Field. Around this well are three flocks waiting to be watered. The three flocks may represent the people of God of the two millennium before the Messiah who seek God's Divine Will, the people of God from the first two millennium after the coming of the Messiah who follow God's Divine Will and the third people of God after 1889 who live in the Divine Will. Or the three flocks could represent the flocks of Judaism, Christianity and Islam or Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism. 

The stone in Rachel's Well in Genesis 29 represents the Stone kingdom in the prophecies of Daniel (see chapter 2) also called the Stone of Israel and Joseph (Genesis 49:24) and the Stone of Jacob (Genesis 28:18). Jacob in the story represents the future Great Monarch and the restoration of the Tribes of Jacob (Jews and Christians). Luisa also was in a stone-like state when she received her revelations. The Stone represents both Luisa and the Kingdom of the Divine Will. She is the Sapphire Stone (Ezekiel 10:1) which is under the feet of the God of Israel (Exodus 24:10) which is the foundation stone of sanctification for the building of the Temple that is the Kingdom of the Divine Will in the third Messianic millennium.

Our Lady is the concept of the Isha (woman/wife) and Imma associated with the 3rd sefirah Binah (feminine Wisdom or Understanding) and Luisa is the concept of Nukvah (female) associated with the 10th sefirah of Malchut/Shekhinah. As there are three mother letters in the Hebrew alphabet is there are three mystical mothers or wombs - aleph א mem מ and shin ש. The Aleph mother represents the uncreated Holy Spirit and the Divinity of God as a womb of Divine Will. The mem mother represents the higher mother (associated with Leah and Elah (Goddess)) who is Our Lady and the shin mother represents the lower mother (associated with Rachel). 

Leah לאה and Goddess אלה are both 36 in Hebrew gematria. 36 is also the gematria for tent (tabernacle) אהל as well as to shine or gleam. Thus Our Lady is associated with the 36 of aleph lamed heh (of the six days of creation and the six sons of Leah) and Luisa with the 36 of lamed vav (with the two days of the sixth day and the Sabbath and the two sons of Rachel).

The concept of the mother is associated with fire and the fire offerings of the Temple and מאש can mean 'from fire'. Rebbe Nachman in the Likutey Moharan writes of the connection of the Imma (mother) who is Isha will the term Aish (fire) and the fire or burnt lifted offering (olah korban). The selfishness of the human will needs to be totally consumed by the fire of God's Divine Will.

Note: One cubit equals 18 inches (45.72 centimetres) and one handbreadth equals 3 inches (7.62 centimetres). The word Canon comes from the word Kaneh (measuring rod) and the Catholic Bible has 72 writings which is 2x36. This represents a double measure. The Sanhedrin had 72 members and Jesus appointed 72 disciples. In the First Testament Period there were the 12 Patriarchs of Israel, in the Second Testament period there were the 12 apostles and in the Kingdom that is coming will be the 12 apostles of the last days. 12+12+12=36.

Monday, September 25, 2017

Iconic Ecclesiology and the Jewish Roots: Diversity and Unity




“And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and the ark of his testament was seen in his temple: and there were lightnings and voices and thunderings and earthquakes and great hail. And there appeared a great sign in the heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars; and she being with child cried out, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered.” (Apoc. 11:19-12:1)

This week[1] in our Catholic parish this literary icon of the Church as the Great Sign in Apocalypse 12 was being discussed by many in the light of many diverse ordinary Christians believing that just such an alignment in the constellation of Virgo will appear over Jerusalem on September 23 2017 and its meaning in regards to the future of the Church.[2] Many Protestants are seeing it as a sign connected with the rapture of the Church, many Catholics are seeing its connection with Fatima where Virgin Miriam appeared clothed with the Sun in 1917 and its 100th Anniversary this year. Is this a new form of theological ecclesial ecumenism among the ordinary believers as both devout Protestants and Catholics are associating this Great Sign in the Heavens (Sky) with the Church, Israel and the Virgin Miriam and a time of persecution or chastisement follow by a new springtime or era of peace for the Church and the world? No doubt the theological and clerical elites[3] will ignore such forms of ecclesial ecumenism among the little ones of their flocks much in the way the Pharisees and Sadducees did in Second Temple times until the Temple and religious structures they had built fell down round their ears. The scholarly elites, while bringing much of value, often write much about diversity but often limit that diversity to that which fits their own paradigm of understanding.[4]


Identifying distinct ecclesiological models of the New or Second Testament period is a subject fraught with assumptions and speculations.  Many theologians have adopted assumptions about the early Church that are based more on their own (or their favourite scholar’s) self-created literary theories than on any scientific or historical evidence. [5] [6] They speak of imaginary Markan, Lukan, Johannine, Pauline, Petrine etc communities for which there is no archaeological, historical or philological evidence. [7] [8] [9] However the Second Testament is full of what Komtov and Lepakhin call literary or verbal icons of the Church.[10] [11] These Second Testament icons of the Church draw on the First Testament and Jewish tradition and literature. It would perhaps be better to refer to Markan, Lukan etc. icons of the Church rather than Markan, Lukan etc. communities.  The Church is a mystery that in its inner essence can only truly be spoken about and encountered fully in a poetic and iconic manner using analogical, metaphorical and the symbolic language of imagery.[12] In this short essay I will seek to touch on a few elements of the diverse iconologies of the Church which are in reality united like an onion to its rings or layers. Where some scholars see contradictions and oppositions[13] others encounter diverse iconic layers that serve an ecclesiological unity[14] that sheds light on the mystery that is the Church (Messianic Edah or Kehilla).[15]


The Second Testament period of the Church dates from its ecclesial beginnings in the Cenacle until the destruction of the Jewish Temple and Jerusalem in 70 AD. [16]This Church was a Jewish centred messianic community which also began to have thriving assemblies made up of Gentile believers. It also drew its Jewish members from different strands within Second Temple Judaism that brought their own ideas and insights into the Second Testament Church.

The Hillel and Essene traditions of Pharisaic Judaism were the most influential on the early Church but also the priestly or Temple rituals were also important to many Jews coming into the New Covenant Church especially those from the Sadducee tradition.[17] The Judaisers most likely coming from the Shammai school of the Pharisees into the Messianic community also played a role in the early Church.[18] It would seem that there is some evidence that the Hillel strand of the Jewish Church (centred in Jerusalem headed by a Messianic Davidic Nasi or Abbot) and the Essene strand (centred in Edessa headed by a charismatic prophet or Tzadik) may have developed in separate paths after 70 AD.[19] [20]There were also a strong input of the Hellenist Jews to the early Church.[21] The later Church of the Uncircumcision or Gentiles after 70 AD starting developing in different directions with a more monarchical rule by bishops but still with its roots in Jewish thought and practice.[22] In the 5th century most of the remnants of the Jewish Church assimilated either into the Gentile Church or the Jewish Synagogue where they secretly maintained their Jewish Christian traditions and gradually some of these traditions and ideas were integrated into the Church or Synagogue.[23] 

This rich diversity of Jewish thought would act as a Jewish leaven as Yeshua revealed in his parable of the Bread or Challah Woman in Matthew 13:33. This parable is also an ecclesiological icon of the Church (the woman Ecclesia or Kneset Yisrael) which is both eschatological and Eucharistic. The Church is the leaven that is to grow into the fullness of the Kingdom of God throughout time and history. This alludes to Paul’s ecclesial and Eucharistic icon of the Church as the one loaf (challah) we all share (1 Cor. 10:17) and Luke’s iconic story of the breaking of the bread by the risen Messiah on the way to Emmaus.[24] Jewish tradition links the patient waiting for the challah dough to rise with the nurturing of a child in the maternal womb.[25] In 2013 Pope Francis linked the resurrection encounter of the Emmaus way experience with the concept of the maternal womb of mercy in his discussion of a new Biblical ecclesiological paradigm.[26] Thus the three strands or braids of the Messianic challah are the Eucharistic (sacrificial and liturgical), Marian (incarnational and mystical) and Petrine (eschatological and doctrinal) strands of the developing Messianic community which is symbolised by the Bread Woman who is Mother of the Church as the woman in labour and the Woman of Israel (Apoc.12).[27] [28] [29]
  There are many other diverse but interconnected icons of the Church (Ecclesia or Kehilla) found in the Second Testament Scriptures which all draw on the First Testament and Jewish tradition. It is difficult to discuss one without linking them to other iconic verses and passages of Scripture. Some of these literary icons found in the Second Testament are Body of the Messiah,[30] the Vineyard,[31] the Temple of God,[32] the Rock,[33] the Sign of Jonah,[34] the Yesod,[35] the Chuppah,[36] the Betrothed Virgin,[37] Manna eater,[38] the Light Bearer,[39] Seed of the Kingdom,[40] Follower of the Halakah (Way),[41] a Holy City,[42] the Olive Tree,[43] the Great Sign[44] and many others. All of these Second or New Testament icons of the Church have a rich heritage in the First Testament Scriptures and People. 


The later models of the Church would draw on these ecclesial Jewish icons and use them for their own understanding of the nature and mission of the Church. However like in the parable of the seeds some of these understandings of the Church would bear good fruit and others not, some would flourish for a season and then wither away.[45] Avery lists six ecclesiological models of the Church as Institution, Mystical Communion, Sacrament, Herald, Servant and Community of Disciples.[46] All of these models for Church build on some of the Scriptural ecclesiological literary icons mentioned above. They are adapted to suit the period of history and the development of doctrine since the time of the Second Testament period. The Western and Eastern rite Churches have developed these icons and insights in different ways. This short essay is not able to discuss this in any detail. 


One of the icons of the Church which has had prominence in the Western Church due especially to St Augustine is the icon of the Church as Holy City or City of God.[47] This idea has also a Sophiological and Marian dimension and understanding of the Church which is also found in Eastern rite Christianity especially in Russian Orthodoxy.[48] [49] This perceives the Church as both Wisdom and Mother which when understood in a mystical and spiritual sense bears good fruit in a richness of diversity in unity but mixed with politics and power can become totalitarian, oppressive, conformist, uniform, utilitarian and monolithic (rather than universal). The visible man-made structures of the Church can then appear more like Lilith or Dame Folly rather than the maternal Lady of Wisdom of which the humble Virgin Miriam or the Repentant Miriam of  Magdala is the icon or model.[50]
 

 The pagan Roman governmental model adapted to the Church organisation was one post Biblical model used by the Churches of the Gentiles in both East and West.  This model is the one Avery calls Institutional. This model may have served the Church well in the past in some sense, but is it time to revisit the earlier Jewish and scriptural models of Church governance without compromising the infallible teachings of faith and morals? Has the Church used the model of the Church as the rock and pillar and foundation of the truth through the ages in the true spirit of the Gospel or have we used it to enforce our truth rather than proclaim and offer it? During the time of the Church of the Gentiles[51] have we not truly discerned what is truly of the Spirit of the Messiah rather than the spirit of the world? Has the Church exercised power and authority like Gentile Lords?[52] 

The Gaelic pastoral structure model of the Irish Church was based more directly on the Jewish model of the Second Testament Church with the Abbot or Messianic Nasi (whether lay or clerical) as head of the institutional pastoral side of the Christian communities.[53] The Bishops were an important part of these monastic based communities but under the authority of the Abbot.[54] It wasn’t until the 12th century that Ireland embraced a more diocesan system.[55] An image of the Church drawn from the Song of Songs is the Nut Garden.[56] Can we break the hard shells of power and rigidity, that we have clothed our teachings in, to get to the delicious kernel of truth that the first Pope called Peter as the Son and Sign of Jonah was not a Roman Lord but a Jewish fisherman (with all the human weaknesses and failings) who was persecuted with his flock by the Gentile Lords of Rome who exercised their power over the little ones?[57]


The Church of the Gentiles has often confused the Church which is the seed or leaven of the Kingdom with the Kingdom of God (in Matthew called the Kingdom of Heaven) itself.[58] This has in certain places and times led to an overemphasis on the institutional and power aspects of the Church rather than the humble messianic servant of the people of God which is the mystical Body of the Messiah.[59] The important place of the Holy Spirit and communion in the Divine Life of the Holy Trinity in animating and breathing life into the Church and its structures and institutions has in the past been neglected by the scholars of the Latin Church.[60] [61]  The mystical dimension in both Christianity and Judaism has often been swamped by a legalistic and rigid emphasis on rules and laws. Religious rules and laws are meant to be signposts to guide us on the spiritual and mystical journey into encounter with the Divine. When Torah is interpreted with the spirit and not the letter then it is perfect and converts or restores the soul.[62]


One of the Second Testament icons of the Church is the Chuppah or bridal tent or chamber in which the marriage is consummated. Yeshua refers to his disciples as children of the Chuppah and to himself as the Chatan (bridegroom) [63] which alludes to the Song of Songs and Psalm 19. Psalm 19 also mystically and conceptually draws on Genesis 1.[64] This bridegroom in Psalm 19 is identified as the Sun and the bridal tent as the tent or chamber of the sun and linked by the early Jewish –Christians with the Messiah mentioned in Malachi as the Sun of righteousness who arises with healing in his wings (the tent flaps). 

Jewish tradition as taught by Breslov Hasidism refer to these “wings of the sun” as the sun garments or coverings (bridal garments of the Chatan[65]) which allows God’s glory and Will to be perceived by his creatures. The “wings of the sun” that brings healing is the teachings of the True Tzaddik (righteous one). This True Tzaddik thus fashions vessels that allow us to encounter God’s glory (kavod) and presence (shekhinah) in our lives.[66] Thus the Chuppah alludes to the Sun Temple (tent or tabernacle) where the Sun Bridegroom consummates his union with his Bride (who is symbolised by the Moon) at the midnight hour[67] (see the parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins).[68] At the moment of consummation the Moon Bride eclipses her Lover the Sun Bridegroom. This alludes to the darkness and hiddenness of mystery and sacrament. 

This mystical, incarnational and sacramental understanding of the Church has had a revival today in the teachings of Pope John Paul II on the “theology of the Body”. Thus the icon of the Church as Chuppah is closely linked to the icons of the Church as Body of the Messiah and Temple and Tabernacle of the Lord as well as the Bride of Messiah and Betrothed Virgin.


In this brief essay I have sought to touch on some of the mystery of the Church from an iconic ecclesiological perspective drawing in particular on the Jewish roots of the Church interpreted through a paradigm of diversity in unity. While not always agreeing with the theological perspectives of Raymond Brown and Richard McBrien, I concur with them in their understanding that the numerous and diverse Second Testament iconologies of the Church are one of continuity and development within the framework of diversity with unity rather than that of contradictory and competing ecclesiologies as proposed by Kaseman and others. “The Spirit and the Bride say ‘Come!’…”.[69]                 


Bibliography
Addleshaw, George William Outram. The Pastoral Structure of the Celtic Church in Northern Britain. No. 43. Borthwick Publications, 1973.

Augustine, Aurelius. The City of God. Vol. 1. Lulu. com, 1945.

Bird, Michael F. "The Markan Community, Myth or Maze? Bauckham's the Gospel for all Christians Revisited." The Journal of Theological Studies 57.2 (2006): 474-486.

Brown, Raymond E. "The Unity and Diversity in New Testament Ecclesioyogy." Novum Testamentum 6.Fasc. 4 (1963): 298-308.

Cooley, Jeffrey L. "Psalm 19: A Sabbath Song1." Vetus Testamentum 64.2 (2014): 177-195.
Crossan, John Dominic. Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography Harper: San Francisco, 1994.
Doyle, Dennis M. Communion Ecclesiology: Vision and Versions. Mary-knoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2000.
Dulles, Avery. Models of Church, Expanded ed. New York: Image Books, 1974/ 1987.
Ebo Annan, Stephen. "“Do not Stifle the Spirit”: The Vision of Yves Congar for Charismatic Ecclesiology." New Blackfriars 95.1058 (2014): 443-467.
Falk, Harvey (Rabbi) Jesus the Pharisee; A New Look at the Jewishness of Jesus, New York ; Paulist Press, 1985.
Flanagan, Marie Therese. The Transformation of the Irish Church in the Twelfth and Thirteenth centuries. Vol. 29. Boydell & Brewer, 2010.

Friedman OC, Elias (Father). Jewish identity. USA Miriam Press, 1987.
Greenbaum, Avraham. The wings of the sun: Traditional Jewish healing in theory and practice. Azamra Institute, 1995.
Hahnenberg, Edward P. "The Mystical Body of Christ and Communion Ecclesiology: Historical Parallels." Irish Theological Quarterly 70.1 (2005): 3-30.

Käsemann, Ernst. "Unity and diversity in New Testament ecclesiology." Novum Testamentum 6.Fasc. 4 (1963): 290-297.

Komkov, Oleg. "The Vertical Form: Iconological Dimension in 20th Century Russian Religious Aesthetics and Literary Criticism." Literature and Theology 20.1 (2006): 7-19.
Kornblatt, Judith Deutsch. Divine Sophia: The Wisdom writings of Vladimir Solovyov  New York; Cornell University Press, 2009.
Lane, Dermot A. "The Eucharist as Sacrament of the Eschaton." The Furrow 47.9 (1996): 467-473.

Lepakhin, Valerii. "Basic Types of Correlation between Text and Icon, between Verbal and Visual Icons." Literature and Theology 20.1 (2006): 20-30.

Manoussakis, John Panteleimon. "The Anarchic Principle of Christian Eschatology in the Eucharistic Tradition of the Eastern Church." Harvard Theological Review 100.1 (2007): 29-46.

McBrien, Richard P. The Church: The Evolution of Catholicism. Harper Collins, 2008.

Peterson, Dwight N. The origins of Mark: the Markan community in current debate. Vol. 48. Brill, 2000.

Pinson, Rochie (Rebbetzin). The Rising Life: Challah Baking, Elevated. Orly Press, 2015.

Pope Francis, APOSTOLIC JOURNEY TO RIO DE JANEIRO ON THE OCCASION OF THE XXVIII WORLD YOUTH DAY MEETING WITH THE BISHOPS OF BRAZIL http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/speeches/2013/july/documents/papa-francesco_20130727_gmg-episcopato-brasile.html
Robinson, John A T (Bishop) Redating the New Testament Philedelphia: Westminister Press, 1976).
Skarsaune, Oskar. In the shadow of the Temple: Jewish influences on early Christianity. InterVarsity Press, 2008.
Skarsaune, Oskar, and Reidar Hvalvik, eds. Jewish believers in Jesus: the early centuries. Hendrickson Pub, 2007.
Schillebeeckx, Edward. Jesus: An Experiment in Christology London: Collins, 1979.
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Torrey, C. C.  The Apocalypse of John, New Haven, Conn, 1958.
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[1] August 15 and the readings of Our Lady’s Assumption.
[2] According to these reports on September 23 the constellation Virgo will appear in the sky above Jerusalem with 12 stars- nine from Leo and the other three are planets and the sun over the shoulder of Virgo and the moon under her feet. Jupiter will spend about 9 months in the “womb” of Virgo before exiting a few days earlier. Apparently this last occurred 7,000 years ago.
[3] Brendan O’Neill the political commentator and journalist speaks of the sneering political elites but one could extend this to the sneering theological and religious elites too.
[4] Richard P McBrien, The Church: The Evolution of Catholicism. (Harper Collins, 2008), 25.
[5] Edward Schillebeeckx, Jesus: An Experiment in Christology (London: Collins, 1979), 364-379.
[6]  John Dominic Crossan, Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography, (San Francisco: Harper, 1994), 160.
[7] Michael F Bird, “The Markan Community, Myth or Maze: Bauckham’s The Gospel For All Christians Revisited” Journal of Theological Studies Vol 57 pt 2 (UK: Oxford University Press, 2006), 475-477
[8] Dwight N Peterson, The Origins of Mark: The Markan Community in Current Debate, (Leiden:Brill, 2000), 4-5.
[9] Bishop John A T Robinson, Redating the New Testament (Philedelphia: Westminister Press, 1976) 1-30.
[10] Valerii Lepakhin, "Basic Types of Correlation between Text and Icon, between Verbal and Visual Icons." Literature and Theology 20, no. 1 (2006): 20.
[11] Oleg Komkov, "The Vertical Form: Iconological Dimension in 20th Century Russian Religious Aesthetics and Literary Criticism." Literature and Theology 20, no. 1 (2006), 8-9.
[12] McBrien, The Church: The Evolution of Catholicism, 16.
[13] Ernst Käsemann, "Unity and diversity in New Testament ecclesiology." Novum Testamentum 6.Fasc. 4 (1963): 291-293.
[14] Brown, Raymond E. "The Unity and Diversity in New Testament Ecclesioyogy." Novum Testamentum 6.Fasc. 4 (1963): 298-308.
[15] McBrien, The Church: The Evolution of Catholicism, 27.
[16] C. C. Torrey, The Apocalypse of John, (New Haven, Conn, 1958), 86 
[17] Rabbi Harvey Falk, Jesus the Pharisee; A New Look at the Jewishness of Jesus, New York ; Paulist Press, 1985.
[18] Book of Acts
[19] These questions are tied up with the role of the Davidic Nassim in the later Jewish, Christian and Muslim communities and cannot be discussed here in any detail. The Jerusalem Church had three pillars- a Messianic Davidic Nasi in St James (kingly), a Av Beth Din or Chief Rabbi (prophetic) in St John and a Chief Priest or Hegmon Parnas (Priestly) in St Peter. The later Celtic communities called these three the Abbot, the Chief Scribe and the Chief Bishop. A community could have more than one Bishop who were selected from the priests due to their wisdom and sanctity. An Abbot could be a layman or woman as long as they came from the right noble lineage.
[20] Hubertus Waltherus Maria van de Sandt,  ed. Matthew and the Didache: two documents from the same Jewish-Christian milieu?. (Uitgeverij Van Gorcum, 2005), 28-30.
[21] Käsemann, "Unity and diversity in New Testament ecclesiology.", 291.
[22] Oskar Skarsaune, In the shadow of the Temple: Jewish influences on early Christianity. InterVarsity Press, 2008.
[23] See Skarsaune, Oskar, and Reidar Hvalvik, eds. Jewish believers in Jesus: the early centuries. Hendrickson Pub, 2007.
[24] Luke 24
[25] See Rochie Pinson The Rising Life: Challah Baking, Elevated. Orly Press, 2015.
[26]  Pope Francis, APOSTOLIC JOURNEY TO RIO DE JANEIRO ON THE OCCASION OF THE XXVIII WORLD YOUTH DAY MEETING WITH THE BISHOPS OF BRAZIL http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/speeches/2013/july/documents/papa-francesco_20130727_gmg-episcopato-brasile.html
[27] John Panteleimon Manoussakis, “The Anarchic Principle of Christian Eschatology in the Eucharistic Tradition of the Eastern Church” in Harvard Theological Review Volume 100 , Issue 1 (January 2007), 29.
[28] Dermot A Lane, “The Eucharist as Sacrament of the Eschaton” The Furrow Vol. 47, No. 9 (September 1996), 467.
[29] Judith Deutsch Kornblatt,  Divine Sophia: The Wisdom writings of Vladimir Solovyov  (New York; Cornell University Press, 2009) 204-209.
[30] 1 Cor.12:12-27 and Eph.1:22-23
[31] John 15:1-11
[32] Eph.2:20-21 and 1 Cor.3:16
[33] Matt.16:18 and Matt. 7:24
[34] Matt.12:39-40
[35] 1 Timothy 3:15
[36] Luke 5:33-34 and John 14:1-4
[37] 2 Cor.11:2
[38] John 6
[39] Matt.5:13-16
[40] Matt.13:1-23 and Matt:13:31-32
[41] Acts 9:2; 19:9, 23; 22:4; 24:14, 22
[42] Matt.5:14
[43] Romans 11
[44] Apoc.12:1
[45] Matt.13
[46] Avery Dulles, Models of Church, Expanded ed. (New York: Image Books, 1974/ 1987), 197-210.
[47] Augustine, Aurelius. The city of God. Vol. 1. Lulu. com, 1945.
[48] Thomas Schipflinger, Sophia-Maria: A Holistic Vision of Creation, (USA: Samuel Weiser Inc, 1998), 67-71.
[49] Kornblatt, Divine Sophia: The Wisdom Writings of Vladimir Solovyov, 208-9.
[50] See Proverbs
[51] Luke 21:24 and Romans 11:25 Father Elias Friedman founder of the Association of Hebrew Catholics saw the restoration of Jerusalem to the Jewish people in 1967 as ushering in the period known as the end of the time of the Gentiles which will culminate with Paul’s resurrection and restoration and ingathering or ingrafting of the Jewish people into the Church. See Elias Friedman, Jewish identity. USA: Miriam Press, 1987.
[52] Matthew 20:25-26
[53] Monsignor Harry Entwhistle a former Anglican Bishop and present Ordinary of the Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross (established for those of Anglican tradition who enter into union with the Pope) has proposed this Celtic model as a better pastoral structure for the Church of the future.
[54] George William Outram Addleshaw, The Pastoral Structure of the Celtic Church in Northern Britain. No. 43. Borthwick Publications, 1973, 1-2
[55] Marie Therese Flanagan. The Transformation of the Irish Church in the Twelfth and Thirteenth centuries. Vol. 29. Boydell & Brewer, 2010.
[56] Song of Songs 6:11
[57] The nut is also associated with the Bridegroom in the Jewish wedding blessings. See Idel, Moshe. Mystical Experience in Abraham Abulafia, The. Suny Press, 2012.
[58] McBrien, The church: The Evolution of Catholicism, 4-5
[59] Edward P Hahnenberg, "The Mystical Body of Christ and Communion Ecclesiology: Historical Parallels." Irish Theological Quarterly 70.1 (2005): 4-12.
[60] Stephen Ebo Annan, "“Do not Stifle the Spirit”: The Vision of Yves Congar for Charismatic Ecclesiology." New Blackfriars 95.1058 (2014): 443-467.
[61]Dennis M Doyle, Communion Ecclesiology: Vision and Versions. Mary-knoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2000.
[62] Psalm 19:7
[63] Luke 5:33-34
[64] Jeffrey L Cooley, "Psalm 19: A Sabbath Song1." Vetus Testamentum 64.2 (2014): 179-81.
[65] See Matthew 22
[66] See Greenbaum, Avraham. The wings of the sun: Traditional Jewish healing in theory and practice. Azamra Institute, 1995.
[67] Orthodox Jews make love on Friday nights (Sabbath) at midnight and see it as uniting the Divine King with his Shekhinah who is the Sabbath Bride. In a sense the weekly Sabbath meal is the mystical wedding feast. Some scholars believe that many of these mystical understandings in Orthodox Judaism have their source in those Jewish-Christians who rejoined the Synagogue in the 5th century while drawing from the early mystical traditions of Second Temple Judaism.
[68] Matthew 25:1-13
[69] Apoc.22:17