A Catholic Jew Pontificates

I love opinionated non-PC people. This blog is to vent my opinions on life, the universe and everything. Which is 42 which in gematria is "My Heart" (LBY) according to Rabbi Abulafia. The Divine Heart is the centre of everything.

Monday, April 11, 2016

The Lost Princess and the Master of Prayer: The Narratives of Rebbe Nachman from a Hebrew Catholic Perspective

Rebbe Nachman of Breslov is one of the most significant spiritual leaders and storytellers of Jewish Hasidism of the last 200 years. Anthony Kelly, an Australian theologian, speaks of the concept of ‘creative theological imaginings’[1] and Rebbe Nachman uses his ‘creative imaginings’ to clothe the deepest wisdom of Judaism and Jewish Kabbalistic Mysticism  in stories or folktales that can speak to all people of the inner journeys of the heart.[2] The name BReSLoV can be rearranged in Hebrew to be BaSaR LeV (heart of flesh). This essay will discuss the role of narrative and storytelling in the teachings of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov in regards to the concepts and stories of “The Lost Princess” and “The Master of Prayer”. These stories reflect Rebbe Nachman’s deep understanding of Jewish spiritual life focused on the concepts of the Hidden Tzadik (tzadik nistar) and the Tzadik of the Generation (tzadik dor) in the search for the “Lost Princess”. The Rebbe teaches that “people may be asleep all their lives, but through stories told by a true Tzadik, they can be awakened.”[3]

            Andreas Mauz in his article “Theology and Narration: Reflections on the ‘Narrative Theology’ - Debate and Beyond” discusses the role of argumentative theology and narrative theology. He believes each of them has its appropriate place in theological discussion and development. He writes that today the role of narrative is better appreciated in theological circles.[4] Sandra Heinen and Roy Sommer write that, unlike in the recent past, today narrative is the vortex around which different disciplines circle coming into an ever closer proximity.[5]  Mauz also discusses the ideas of Johann Baptiste Metz. Metz is a Catholic theologian who writes from a positive perspective about narrative theology. Metz considers storytelling to be a Jewish strength and that after the Shoah theology is in need of a ‘Jewish corrective’. In this regard he also mentions the Hasidic tales of Martin Buber.[6] Martin Buber retold the stories of both the Baal Shem Tov[7] and his great-grandson Rebbe Nachman of Breslov[8] opening up a new appreciation of Hasidism among secular academic scholarship.

            Liesbeth Korthals Altes  in “A Theory of Ethical Reading” gives the whole concept of narrative a Levinasian focus on ‘ethical reading’. She writes of Levinas and other post-modernists writers providing a ‘poststructuralist bricolage’ to the concept of ‘ethical reading’.[9] Rebbe Nachman draws from many diverse and different sources to come to a unified yet multi-layered meaning is a form of bricolage and I would suggest that likutey could also be translated as bricolage. The main book of the mystical teachings of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov is called “Likutey Moharan”.  Likutey means gleanings or collected sayings and MoHaRaN is an acronym for Morenu Ha Rav Nachman (Our teacher the Rebbe Nachman). Rebbe Nachman also uses a form of bricolage in forming his stories. They draw on the Bible, Talmud, Mussar, Kabbalah, Hasidut,[10] Romanticism[11], philosophy, Frankism[12] and the folktales of his time.[13] The tales of “The Lost Princess” and “The Master of Prayer” are both ‘quest narratives’[14] with similarities to the famous Arthurian and Eucharistic “Quests for the Holy Grail”.[15] Rebbe Nachman himself stated before telling the story of “The Lost Princess”:
 ...Many hidden meanings and lofty concepts are contained in the stories the world tells. They are however deficient since they contain many omissions. They are also confused and are not told in correct sequence. What begins the story may be told at the end, and the like. Nevertheless the folk tales the world tells contain many lofty hidden mysteries...[16]
Rodger Kamenetz’s in his book “Burnt Books: Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav and Franz Kafka” states that Rebbe Nachman (and Kafka) “believed deeply in the imagination, in the power of stories to waken the soul”.[17] Others writers believe that Rebbe Nachman held a negative view on the imagination.[18]However it is not the ‘creative imagination or mind’ that Rebbe Nachman is negative about but the ‘fantastical imagination’ which entertains sinful and sexual imaginings which he also calls the evil inclination[19]. He believes that the imagination is in need of purification and this purified imaginative faculty produces faith (emuna)[20].

            Rebbe Nachman’s stories of “The Lost Princess” (told in 1806) and “The Master of Prayer” (told in 1810) are stories about the loss, quest and finding of the Lost Princess, whom many identify with ‘Emuna’ (Faith).  The quest or journey allows for the purification that is needed for the final encounter with the lost Princess. Many Rabbis and other interpreters also associate the lost Princess with the “Shekhinah”.[21] As Shekhinah she is also associated with Devekut (Cleaving/ Nearness ).[22] She is also associated with the Sabbath Queen, Bride,[23] Matronita, the Soul and Kneset Yisrael (Community or Lady of Israel). She is all of these and more. Others identify her mystically with the “beautiful foreign woman” of Deuteronomy 21:10-14.[24] Both St Cyril of Jerusalem and the “Zohar” associate this ‘beautiful foreign woman’ (Captiva Gentilis) allegorically with the Exodus and Election of Israel.[25] Rabbi Isaac Luria (the great Ari) states that she is “from the root of Israel, abducted into the captivity of the shells”. She could thus be associated with the daughter of  Hokhmah (Wisdom as the male Abba) and Binah (Understanding or feminine wisdom as Imma) who becomes lost among the Gentiles (Greeks) as Sophia or Philosophia  and who will one day be purified and restored to Israelite dignity. This would be a kind of mystical and philosophical marriage of Jerusalem and Athens as envisioned by Levinas[26] and others. 

            A Hebrew Catholic perspective may see this woman as the Virgin Mary or the Church of the Gentiles as the created feminine Sophia.  The tale of “The Lost Princess” is based on a Russian folktale called “The Enchanted Princess” according to Talberg.[27] It is interesting that Jacob Frank’s (presumed?) daughter Eva Frank was said to be a Russian Princess. Some say she was an illegitimate daughter of the Empress Catherine II the Great and a Russian Prince.[28]  Others state that she was the illegitimate daughter of the Empress Elisabeth of Russia and her lover Prince Alexiey Rasumovsky.[29]  Yehuda Liebes states that many of the ideas and stories of Rebbe Nachman have their source in the teachings and stories of Jacob Frank.[30] Rebbe Nachman’s famous story of the “Rooster Prince” is also found in Jacob Frank’s writings[31]in “The Words of the Lord” 143.[32]  

            Liebes also states that the concept of the ‘lost virgin’ appears in both Frank and Rebbe Nachman. Thus the Russian folktale and Rebbe Nachman’s story of  “The Lost Princess” may have as its origin Eva Frank as a Russian Princess, mixed with the Frankist devotion to the icon of Our Lady of Czestochowa- the Black Madonna or Dark Lady and Queen of Poland.[33]Was the lost Princess originally the Lady of Czestochowa[34] who had been lost to the Jewish people but embraced by the Church of the Gentiles (Edom/ Rome)? Did the story of Eva Frank as the daughter of an Eastern Queen or Empress originate because Jacob Frank said she was the spiritual daughter of the Lady of Czestochowa? Eva Frank after the death of her father in 1791 was influenced in a negative way to return to Sabbatean practices and instead of devotion to the Holy Virgin of the icon of Czestochowa these Sabbatean Frankists replaced her with portraits or icons of Eva who they now called the “Holy Virgin”. It was after this that the secret Jewish Frankists (who had remained in the Jewish community) parted ways with Eva and Rebbe Nachman refers to her as Lilith and under the influence of Shabtai (Saturn/ Satan). Rebbe Nachman refers positively to Frank as the "choice silver of the tongue of the Tzadik" (keseF nivchaR leshoN tzadiK)[35] from Proverbs 10:20.  The last letters in Hebrew spell out the name Frank. 

            The tale of “The Lost Princess” tells of the quest of a Viceroy seeking the Princess, after many adventures he finds her on a gold mountain in a pearl castle. Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan links this gold mountain to the golden Ark of the Covenant in the heavenly Holy of Holies.[36] Kaplan also links the pearl castle to the Heavenly Holy of Holies as well as to the Talmudic reference to Abraham having a daughter and a pearl. He is also states that this pearl also represents Wisdom.[37] Both Shimon ben Yohai (the traditional author of the Zohar)[38]and Jacob Frank[39] described the special light (charism/ gift) they had as a pearl. For the Hebrew Catholic the visual imagery is clear. The gold mount or mountain is the golden monstrance and the pearl is the round full-moon shaped Eucharistic host (that looks like a shining white pearl)- this is the Pearl of great price[40]. The mystics of the Zohar see the Shekhinah in the image of the full-moon. During the 17th and 18th centuries movements for Eucharistic Adoration were growing in Europe. The Frankists became a spiritual leaven for promoting such mystical and spiritual practices.

            According to the Breslov Chasidim just before the Messiah comes, the Jews will find the Lost Princess. Most commentators such as Rabbi Nathan the chief disciple of Rebbe Nachman associate the Lost Princess with the Shekhinah in Exile. Rabbi Shalom Arush however refers to her as the Sabbath Queen and as Emuna (Faith).[41] He has written two very practical books on attaining spiritual growth by a focus on Emuna (Faith). In his books “The Garden of Yearning: the Lost Princess” and “The Garden of Emuna: A Practical Guide to Life”[42] he emphasises how one should yearn or desire this level of faith. The Lost Princess is also associated with the coming Kingdom (malkhut).[43] This Lost Princess represents the highest level of total Emuna. Thus this Princess represents the highest level of Sanctity rooted in total Emuna of dwelling in Divine Will. 

            Thus the Lost Princess can be read in different ways that are interconnected. The Lost Princess can represent the sanctity lost by Adam and Eve.[44] This lost sanctity, associated with Shekhinah or Lost Princess in Exile, is that of living in the Divine Will on earth by faith (emuna).[45] The Lost Princess also represents that lost or fallen daughter of Adam and Eve who has by grace regained the gift of Living in Divine Will. Many Catholics associate this daughter with the servant of God Luisa Piccarreta. Israel is the one (the Viceroy in the tale) who seeks and desires reunion with this Lost Princess that he searches for throughout the ages. The way to receive this ancient but new sanctity is to desire it. The tale of “The Lost Princess” relates a form of immemorial history that alludes to chronos history of both the world and Israel as recorded in the Bible.[46] Schwartz believes that the tale of “the Lost Princess” reflects the corporate Jewish experience through reliving the archetypal experiences alluded to in the text of the tale.[47]

            Rabbi Perets Aurebach in his article "In the Wilderness" discusses the story of “The Lost Princess” in regards to the spiritual journey or quest of the soul.[48] He, unknowingly perhaps, links this journey to a concept of Trinitarian praxis.[49] He alludes to the mystical and kabbalistic understanding of the three boxes that make up the Ark of the Covenant as the three Heads of the Divine Will (Keter/ Ratzon).  The outer gold box represents the Ancient of Days (Atik Yomim/ Holy Spirit) who is accessed through the concept of delighting (ta’anug) in the Lord in charismatic praise associated with the ‘field’ or ‘orchard’. The wooden inner box called gulgalta (skull) represents the Long or Patient Face (Arich Anpin/ Son) who is accessed through secluded prayer (hitbodedut) of yearning or desiring the Divine Will (ratzon) hidden by the trees of the forest. The innermost gold box represents the Unknowable Head (RaDLA/ the Father) who is accessed through total self nullification (bitul) through the wilderness or wasteland that is the dark night of the soul. Rabbi Aurebach  writes: 
...In Rabbi Nachman’s story, “The Lost Princess,” the Viceroy follows a side-path through forests, fields, and wildernesses in search of the Lost Princess. Tefilah (prayer) is a quest of searching for the Shechinah (Divine Presence), which represents the sefirah of Malchut (“Kingship”). It catapults the soul to Keter (“Crown”), the ultimate source of Malchut. “Triple-header.” Keter expresses through three heads: RaD”LA (“Unknowable Head”), Atik (“Primordial One”), and Arich Anpin (“Vast Countenance”). Arich, from which arises our deepest feeling of yearning, is called the “root of the emanated.”  One connects to it through yearning – through “tree-hitbodedut” in the forest. Atik, which is the root of delight (oneg), is the “end of the Supernal Emanator.”  One links to it through meditation in the delightful “field of holy apples” (another symbol for the sefirah of Malchut/Kingship). RaD”LA, which is related to bitul, remains aloof. One accesses it through hitbodedut in the wilderness–the place of complete ego-nullification....[50]
            In the tale of “The Master of Prayer” it speaks of a male Child of the Lost Princess. Rabbi Kaplan states that the Child represents “Malkhut” (kingdom/ Kingship) which like Shekhinah is represented by the moon. He also associates the Child with chesed (loving kindness or mercy).[51] This Child is the Hidden Tzadik (Tzadik nistar) that Rebbe Nachman mentions in his “Likutey Moharan” and the Master of Prayer is the Tzadik of the Generation (Tzadik dor). It is clear that Rebbe Nachman saw himself as a Master of Prayer as the Tzadik or Rebbe of the Generation. Some Breslovers see Rebbe Nachman as also the Hidden Tzadik but Rebbe Nachman himself associated the Hidden Tzadik with the concept of Joseph.[52] Rebbe Nachman is pointing to the Holy Child associated with the sons of Joseph (as fish / nuna) in the “Zohar”.[53]

            The Master of Prayer is a singer of songs and a teller of tales that reach people at every level of their spiritual development. He shares in the spirit (charism) of the Hidden Messiah son of Joseph while not being that Messiah himself.[54] “The Master of Prayer” begins:
Once there was a master of prayer. He was constantly engaged in prayer, and in singing songs and praises to God. He lived away from civilisation. However he would visit inhabited areas on a regular basis. When he came he would spend time with the people, usually those of low status, such as the poor. He would have heart to heart discussions with them, speaking about the goal in life. He would explain that the only true goal was to serve God all the days of one’s life, spending one’s days praying to God and singing His praise...He would speak to an individual at great length, motivating him, so that his words entered the other’s heart, and the individual would agree to join him. As soon as a person agreed with him, he would take him and bring him to his place away from civilisation. For this purpose the Master of Prayer had chosen for himself a place far from civilisation. There was a river flowing there, as well as fruit trees, whose fruit he and his followers would eat. He was not at all concerned about clothing...Whenever people wanted to join him, he would take them to his place...where their only activities would be praying, singing praise to God, confession, fasting, self-mortification, repentance and similar occupations. He would give them books of prayers, songs, praises, and confessions...[55]
This Master of Prayer would also select those from among his followers who were leaders and he would send them forth on missions to also preach and teach the goal of life to those trapped in materialism and idolatry.[56] Rebbe Nachman saw himself as a Master of Prayer who is the Tzadik of the generation.  Every true Tzadik of the generation is not recognised (except by his few followers) in his generation. He is ridiculed and doubted by his generation and only recognised after his death.[57] However Rebbe Nachman did not fully see himself as the Master of Prayer in the story. Schwartz also believes that in the tale of  “The Lost Princess” the viceroy represent the Tzadik of the generation who brings together the mystical union of the Messiah and the Shekhinah.[58]  He also notes that the Messiah and the Shekhinah in these tales are both in Exile. Is it the role of the Jewish Tzadik to restore the Messiah and the Shekhinah to Israel? 

            The whole concept of the mystical “Hand” with five fingers[59] in the tale alludes to the “Hand of Miriam” or Hamsa and the icon of the Virgin at Czestochowa. The Mighty Warrior in the tale refers to the concepts of Joseph and Yesod (Foundation) according to Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan.[60] Does this Mighty Warrior represent the Czar of all the Russias as the Josephite anointed one (mashiach) of Ephraim who is also called the Anointed for War? There are historical records that part of Rebbe Nachman’s secret teachings about the coming of the Messiah, that he spoke about the Messiah and Russia and what would come to pass in the future.[61]

            “The Master of Prayer” tale tells us that the Master of Prayer would disguise himself and appear as a merchant or a pauper. When his disguise was discovered he fled.[62] Was the original model for the Master of Prayer Jacob Frank and his successor and grandson –in-law Reb Sender of Shekhlov (also known as Benjamin Broide, Ephraim Brody and Alexander Margoliot)?  Reb Sender was the Tzadik of the hidden Frankists who remained in the Jewish communities. Rebbe Sender (as Rabbi Ephraim of Brody) was the father-in-law of Rebbe Nachman. People, from his time and after, accused Rebbe Nachman of being a Sabbatean and a Frankist. These people have misunderstood and slandered Jacob Frank and the early Frankists (Zoharists) and thus seek to discredit Rebbe Nachman and his teachings as well. I indeed believe Rebbe Nachman of Breslov was a secret Frankist who abhorred the Sabbatean heresy and was concerned in making reparation (tikkun) for their sexual perversion of Jewish mysticism. 

            Rebbe Nachman knew that his Jewish flock were not ready for the deeper teachings or the reunion of Jews and Christians so he chose to hide his teachings in the form of stories and mystical narratives which people of different levels of understanding could access. He had seen the failure of those Frankists who had openly embraced baptism and Catholicism to preserve the Jewish inheritance, and was horrified with Eva Frank and her followers who relapsed into Sabbatean heresy. Judaism teaches that every word and phrase of Scripture has 70 faces and Rebbe Nachman’s stories and writings also share in this multi-faceted approach. Rebbe Nachman has allowed me to grow into a deeper spiritual person and to integrate my Jewish and Catholic sides in a way that at first seemed impossible. This internal integration means that I automatically think as a Hebrew Catholic and have developed my own kind of Hebrew Catholic Breslov spirituality. These two tales of “The Lost Princess” and “The Master of Prayer” have made a deep impression on my soul and I have only touched lightly on their meanings in this essay. Each time one reads his stories, new insights of Torah are created that enrich ones internal spiritual life. “The Master of Prayer” concludes with the hope  of all souls:
...The Mighty Warrior then sent for the Master of Prayer, who gave them a means of repentance and rectification, and thus purified them. The King ruled over the entire world. The whole world returned to God and occupied itself only with Torah, prayer, repentance and good deeds. Amen May this be His Will. Blessed be God forever. Amen and Amen...[63]



[1] Anthony Kelly, Eschatology and Hope, (New York: Orbis Books,2006), 185.
[2] Likutey Moharan Vol. VII 60:6
[3] Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, (Jerusalem/New York: Breslov Research Institute, 2005), xxi.
[4] Sandra Heinen (editor) and Roy Sommer (editor), Narratologia: Narratology in the Age of Cross-Disciplinary Narrative Research (Walter de Gruyter; Berlin, 2009), 275-278.
[5] Heinen (editor) and Sommer (editor), Narratologia: Narratology in the Age of Cross-Disciplinary Narrative Research, 1.
[6] Heinen (editor) and Sommer (editor), Narratologia: Narratology in the Age of Cross-Disciplinary Narrative Research, 266.
[7] see Martin Buber, Tales of the Hasidim, (New York: Schocken Books, 1947).
[8] see Martin Buber, Tales of Rabbi Nachman, (New Jersey: Humanities Press International, 1988).
[9] Gaye Williams Ortiz (editor) and Clara A.B. Joseph (editor), Theology and Literature: Rethinking Reader Responsibility (Palgrave Macmillan; Gordonsville VA, USA, 2006), 17.
[10] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, xvii.
[11] Chanani Haran Smith, Tuning the Soul; Music as a Spiritual Process in the Teachings of Rabbi Nahman of Bratzlav  IJS Studies in Judaica  Volume 10 (Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2009), 59.
[12] Yehuda Liebes, Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993), 148-50.
[13] Howard Schwartz, “The Quest for the Lost Princess: Transition and Change in Jewish Lore”, Judaism 43.3 (Summer 1994), 242.
[14] Schwartz, “The Quest for the Lost Princess: Transition and Change in Jewish Lore”, 242.
[15] Dr. Julian Ungar-Sargon, The Absent Seventh Beggar: Rabbi Nachman’s Final Parable, .
[16] Eli Talberg, Tikun ha-Brit: View of the Torah on Sexual Development of a Man <http://algart.net/en/tikkun_ha_berit/tikun_ha_brit.html#relig_2>
[17] D.G. Myers, “Don’t Eat that Lotus” Commentary 131.2 (Feb 2011), 69.
[18] Smith, Tuning the Soul; Music as a Spiritual Process in the Teachings of Rabbi Nahman of Bratzlav, 55.
[19] Zvi Mark, Mysticism and Madness: The Religious Thought of Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav (London/ New York: Continuum, 2009), 12.
[20] Mark, Mysticism and Madness: The Religious Thought of Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav, 8.
[21] Schwartz, “The Quest for the Lost Princess: Transition and Change in Jewish Lore”, 242.
[22] Talberg, Tikun ha-Brit: View of the Torah on Sexual Development of a Man <http://algart.net/en/tikkun_ha_berit/tikun_ha_brit.html#relig_2>
[23] Schwartz, “The Quest for the Lost Princess: Transition and Change in Jewish Lore”, 242.

[24] Casten L Wilke, “The Soul is a Foreign Woman: Otherness and Psychological Allegory from the
 Zohar to Hasidism” The Bible and its World, Rabbinic Literature and Jewish Law, and Jewish Thought Volume 1 (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 2008), 129-130.
[25] Wilke, “The Soul is a Foreign Woman: Otherness and Psychological Allegory from the
 Zohar to Hasidism”, 132, 134.
[26] see Ephraim Meir, Levinas’s Jewish Thought: Between Jerusalem and Athens  (Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Magnes Press, 2008).
[27] Talberg, Tikun ha-Brit: View of the Torah on Sexual Development of a Man <http://algart.net/en/tikkun_ha_berit/tikun_ha_brit.html#relig_2>
[28] Rachel Elior, Encyclopaedia Judaica Frank, Eva (The Gale Group, 2008).
[29] Pawel Maciejko, The Mixed Multitude: Jacob Frank and the Frankist Movement, 1755-1816, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), 237.
[30] Liebes, Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism, 148-50.
[31] This collection must be read with discernment as some of it is authentically from Jacob Frank and other parts additions by the Prague Sabbateans (who later joined Eva Frank) posing as Frank.
[32] Liebes, Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism, 149.
[33] Maciejko, The Mixed Multitude: Jacob Frank and the Frankist Movement, 1755-1816, 169.
[34] Legends states that this icon was painted by St Luke himself.
[35] Likutey Moharan 29:11
[36] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, 17.
[37] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, 18.
[38] Zohar 1:11b
[39] “Words of the Lord” 151 and 245. Lenowitz, Harris. The Collection of the Words of the Lord (USA: University of Utah, 2004).
[40] Matthew 13: 45-46
[41] Rabbi Shalom Arush, The Garden of Yearning: the Lost Princess, (Israel: Munah Outreach, 2007), 24.
[42] Rabbi Shalom Arush, The Garden of Emuna: A Practical Guide to Life, (Israel: Munah Outreach,2007).
[43] Arush, The Garden of Yearning: the Lost Princess, 23.
[44] Schwartz, “The Quest for the Lost Princess: Transition and Change in Jewish Lore”, 244.
[45] Rabbi Ozer Bergman, Where Earth and Heaven Kiss:A Guide to Rebbe Nachman’s Path of Mediation, (Jerusalem/ New York:Breslov Research Institute, 2006), 188-189.
[46] Schwartz, “The Quest for the Lost Princess: Transition and Change in Jewish Lore”, 244.
[47] Schwartz, “The Quest for the Lost Princess: Transition and Change in Jewish Lore”, 244.
[48] Rabbi Perets Aurebach, In the Wilderness, <http://asimplejew.blogspot.com.au/2009/09/guest-posting-by-rabbi-perets-auerbach.html>
[49] Glenn Morrison, A Theology of Alterity: Levinas, von Balthasar and Trinitarian Praxis (Pittsburg: Duquesne University Press, 2013), 3.

[50] Aurebach, In the Wilderness, <http://asimplejew.blogspot.com.au/2009/09/guest-posting-by-rabbi-perets-auerbach.html>
[51] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, 278.
[52] Likutey Moharan 67.
[53] Daniel Chanan Matt (translator), Zohar: The Book of Enlightenment, (New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1983), 174.
[54] Rabbi Chaim Kramer, Mashiach: Who? What? Why? How? Where? And When?, (Jerusalem/New York: Breslov Research Institute, 1994), 26-28.
[55] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, 247-250.
[56] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, 250.
[57]  Rabbi Chaim Kramer, Crossing the Narrow Bridge: A Practical Guide to Rebbe Nachman’s Teachings, (Jerusalem/ New York: Breslov Research Institute, 1989), 348-352.
[58] Schwartz, “The Quest for the Lost Princess: Transition and Change in Jewish Lore”, 246.
[59] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, 266-271.
[60] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, 261.
[61] Zvi Mark, The Scroll of the Secrets: The Hidden Messianic Vision of R. Nachman of Breslav, (Brighton MA: Academic Studies Press, 2010), 28-30.
[62] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, 261.
[63] Kaplan, The Lost Princess and Other Kabbalistic Tales of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, 317.





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