Rebbe Nachman of Breslov Pope John Paul II
by Brother Gilbert Bloomer
This essay will discuss, from a Jewish and Catholic perspective, the Jewish Hasidic teachings of Kabbalah in the teachings of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810) on the mysteries of the Divine Man (Adam Kadmon) and the ten sefirot in the context of a phenomenological approach to music, song, melody and dance as a manifestation of Divine Mercy in action (hasidut). This Jewish Breslov ‘theology of the body’ parallels the phenomenological Catholic ‘theology of the body’ found in the teaching of Pope John Paul II. These deeply mystical teachings will be connected to their practical application in the areas of music therapy and practical Eucharistic holiness.
At the heart of Jewish spirituality is ‘Adoration of the Divine Presence’, just as Catholic spirituality is centred on ‘Adoration of the Presence of Jesus in the Eucharist’. This focus on adoration leads to a spirituality of divine Intimacy practiced by its practitioners. In Judaism these practitioners or adorers are called the ‘Reapers of the Field’ and ‘haverim’ (friends/ comrades /companions). Jesus calls his followers (talmidim) at the Last Supper ‘haverim’ . In the Zohar these ‘haverim’ are described as a higher level than ‘lovers’. Lovers are those who seek and long for the beloved and occasionally consummate that love in mystical ecstasy. ‘Haverim’ are the constant intimate companions of God who live in a perpetual conjugal relationship of divine intimacy with Him.
The mystical ‘field’ or ‘apple orchard’ is the ten sefirot of the Kabbalah (Jewish mystical tradition) translated as attributes or emanations. These ten sefirot are seen as the figure (komah) of the Divine Man or Adam Kadmon (Primordial Man) in whose image and likeness man and the whole Universe were made. This is a complex subject which can not be discussed fully here. The great medieval Jewish Rabbi, commentator and kabbalist Nachmanides (Ramban) taught in accord with the early kabbalists that the ten sefirot were of one essence (atzmut) with the Deity. They used the term ‘as a coal united to its flame’ and uncreated lights. Maimonides (Rambam) and the later kabbalists taught that the sefirot were created lights and thus the partzuf (persona or profile) of Adam Kadmon was created. The Messiah is said to have Adam Kadmon as his soul. Rabbi Ginsburg a Chabad Hasidic Rabbi writes:
“...The two words which form the name Adam Kadmon allude to its paradoxical nature of being, on the one hand a created being--Adam--while on the other hand a manifestation of primordial Divinity--Kadmon. For this reason, Adam Kadmon is often seen to represent the archetypal soul of Mashiach, the general yechida of all the souls of Israel, the ultimate "crown" of all of God's Creation, the Divine "intermediate" which reveals primordial Infinity to finite created reality...”
This alludes to the manifestation of ‘light’ in Genesis 1. The Infinite Light manifesting as the divine Singing-“let there be light” (yehi or) and from it the created light –“and there was light” (vayhi or) as the Song of Creation. This light or song (of the twilight between the first and second day) which Judaism associates with the light of the Messiah and the Well (vessel/ Sea) of Miriam becomes the hidden or dark light and melody. The ‘Mouth of Miriam’s Well’ appears on the twilight between the sixth day and the Sabbath of the creation week associated with the light of the 36 hours in which Adam lived in Divine Will. The Rabbis link the concepts of song, music, dance, well (be’er), waters, sea, Miriam and gathering (mikveh/ kneset/ congregationesque), together in Genesis 1, Exodus 15 and Numbers 21. Well water is linked to the primordial waters of the deep (abyss/ tahom). For the Catholic Jew this alludes to the mystery of the Incarnation in Eternity and the Messiah who in his divinity the sefirot are uncreated lights or crowns and in his humanity created lights received from his Mother who is the created mirror of the uncreated sefirot.
While most Hasidic spirituality like most Jewish and Catholic spirituality and theology begin with the Divine and descend to the world of man, Breslov, like Frankist spirituality, begins with man and his experiences and then ascends from that to the Heavenly realm. This is today called a phenomenological approach and is the approach of Pope John Paul II in his ‘theology of the body’ teachings on Divine Intimacy. Rebbe Nachman of Breslov develops his own phenomenological ‘theology of the body’ drawing on the teachings of Jacob Frank in many regards. John Paul II seems to have received his insight through a Jewish transmission of phenomenology via Husserl and a Frankist (or Catholic Jewish) phenomenology via the Polish Frankist literary figures Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Slowacki.
The ten sefirot are associated with the ten parts of the body of Adam Kadmon. Keter or the Crown, represented by the hair of Adam Kadmon, is the first Sefirah- its inner face is the Divine Will and its outer face is Knowledge. The second sefirah is Wisdom (Khokhmah) represented by the right side of the head or brain. The third sefirah Binah (Understanding) is the left side of the head or brain. The fourth sefirah Khesed (loving kindness/mercy) is the right white arm and the fifth sefirah Din (judgment) is the red left arm. The sixth sefirah represented by the heart or torso is known as Rachamim (compassionate mercy) and Tiferet (Beauty). The legs of the Divine Man are the eighth sefirah, hod (majesty) on the left and netzach (overcoming victory/longsuffering patience) the right seventh sefirah. The ninth sefirah is represented by the phallus of Adam Kadmon. It is called yesod (foundation) and Tzadik (righteousness). The tenth sefirah is known as malkhut (kingdom) and shekhinah (presence). This is seen as the one which unites all the sefirot into one.
As male the tenth sefirah is seen as malkut (kingdom) and shekhen (male presence) as the bouncing or dancing scrotum (galgalim/ mystical rounds) of the mystical dancing David or Messiah son of David who dances naked before the presence of God . The tenth sefirah as a feminine Mirror is perceived as Shekhinah (the female presence), Malcah (Queen), Kneset Yisrael (community of Israel), Galgal (circle or womb) and Bat Kol (daughter of All). She is seen as the dancing feet of the mystical Miriam or Rachel and Mother of Sorrows.
The realm of evil mirrors a perverse version of these ten attributes as ten demonic traits associated with the demoness Lilith- pride, folly, perversion, hatred, harsh judgment, cruelty, anger, filthiness, lust and greed. Rebbe Nachman describes them as ten poisoned arrows that wound the ‘Lost Princess’. The Lost Princess which represents the Shekhinah in Exile as Kneset Yisrael (community of Israel) can be healed through the ten kinds of songs (found in King David’s Psalms) manifesting as ten pulses (defikin) in the body and soul. Every soul is also represented by the Lost Princess according to Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum. Rabbi Shalom Arush calls the Lost Princess the Sabbath Queen and Emuna (faith). Rebbe Nachman also alludes to her as Miriam (bitter sea) who is the suffering soul of all Israel and he even names one of his daughters in her honour.
The ten sefirot are linked to the ten sayings of Genesis 1 which was sung forth by God in the Great Song of Creation. The ten cantillations of the Hebrew text, which allows the Scriptures to be chanted or sung, are also linked to the ten sefirot in the Zohar. Rebbe Nachman develops a way in which an ordinary person can be healed and sanctified by the means of music, melody, song and dance. Taking the Jewish mystical understanding of the ten sefirot as they manifest in man and creation and then ascending from this lived ordinary experience he enters into a deeper spiritual and mystical dimension of the void or abyss of silence in which one may eventually discern a hidden melody which manifests God’s hidden mercy.
Rebbe Nachman begins with a contemplation of man and ascends to the Adam Kadmon and is involved in the deepest mystical, intimate and pure couplings (unions). However he doesn’t remain there but he descends to the deepest levels to relate to each man and provides a universal reparation (tikun ha kelali) for sins of impurity and perversion connected with the concept of the ten sefirot manifesting as ten kinds of songs. It is a Davidic and Messianic reparation or repair achieved through the Tzadik/Rebbe of the generation (dor) entering into the sufferings of the leper Messiah son of Joseph. According to Breslov teaching each Jew can be part of the soul or spirit of the suffering Messiah son of Joseph. Rebbe Nachman sees that it is necessary to provide a messianic therapeutic treatment to the Jewish people including his Hasidim in preparation for the messianic revelation or manifestation. 
In Jewish traditions King David’s harp is described as a ten stringed harp or lyre, in which the north wind blows on five of the strings and the south wind on the other five. Rebbe Nachman speaks of this harp as five strings touched by the north wind. This has a deep mystical meaning in regards to the future era of sanctification that cannot be discussed here in connection with the Song of the Future. Rebbe Nachman however does refer to David’s ten stringed musical instrument (in the Likutey Moharan) and links it to the ten kinds of melody. Rebbe Nachman teaches:
“...It’s a great mitzvah to be happy all the time, and to make every effort to avoid gloom and depression. All the illnesses people suffer come only from the lack of joy. For there are ten basic kinds of melodies, and these are the true foundation of true joy. Thus it is written, “...with an instrument of ten strings...For you have made me joyous. O God, through Your work” (Psalm 92:2-5). These ten types of melody enter into the ten different pulses of the human body, giving them life. For this reason, when a person is lacking in joy, which consists of ten kinds of melody, his ten pulses become weakened because of the flaw in the ten types of melody, giving rise to illness. For all kinds of illness are included in the ten kinds of pulse, and all the different kinds of songs and melodies are included in the ten types of melody...”
Rebbe Nachman’s role is to reveal how to turn sadness, depression and melancholy into joy (simchah) through melody, song, music and dance which then has a therapeutic effect on the whole person- body and soul.  By the use of his ten fingers he discerns the ten kinds of pulse patterns in the body and seeks via the ten kinds of Songs in the Psalms and the Divine Name YHVH a healing and repair. This is linked to the four elements of fire, air, water and earth which can be expanded musically to ten. Yod (one four time), Yod –Hay (two four time), yod-hay-vav (three four time) and yod-hay-vav-hay (four four time). The Na-Nach group within Breslov Hasidim uses the name of Nachman in the same way Na, Na-Nach, Na-Nach-Nachma, Na-Nach-Nachma-Nachman. This group known for its joyful dancing on and around vans to dance music has been successful in recruiting young Israeli soldiers who no doubt are suffering from many diverse spiritual and mental ailments due to the trauma of war.
Michael Fishbane describes Rebbe Nachman process of turning melancholy into joy in his article “To Jump For Joy: The Rites of Dance According to R, Nahman of Bratzlav”. Fishbane discusses how a famous parable of the Baal Shem Tov as told by his grandson Rebbe Moshe Hayyim (the uncle of Rebbe Nachman) is transformed by Rebbe Nachman in a psychological direction. The original parable (mashal) was based on Exodus20: 18 – “and all the nation saw the sounds”. How can one see sounds? The story of the musician and the deaf man is recounted. A musician plays beautiful music of great sweetness and those who can hear it draw closer and leap with joy. The deaf man who just sees a lot of jumping people thinks that they are all crazy. When the Israelites saw all the angels jumping for joy at the revelation of God which was a revelation of the Divine Song, the Israelites see the joy on the angelic faces and they draw near to listen. Fishbane connects this to Rebbe Nachman’s parable of a circle of dancers who draws one, who is sad and depressed, into their dance circle and thus force him to rejoice. Then his depression and melancholy stand off to one side. But the higher way of Rebbe Nachman is to pursue this depression and melancholy and to transform even it into a higher joy. Fishbane writes:
“... The revision of this parable is remarkable- for in it the social and nomistic aspects of the earlier versions have been thoroughly psychologised. The double circle of dancers... is now the dramatic representation of a psychic division, an inner splitting whereby the joyous celebrant temporarily cuts himself off from depressive deadness...Hence the simple dance...may induce a catalytic catharsis and lead to a higher healing... the master instructs his hearers to work for psychic wholeness- urging a psychological activism that pursues the agents of one’s depression in all their guises, and transforms them through the agency of joy. Dance is thus both the arch-act and arch-metaphor for this cathartic process...”.
Chanani Smith discusses Rebbe Nachman use of music as a metaphor and states that “it is therefore possible to speak of the spiritual process using musical language and vice versa.” He states that music is s a metaphor for religious experience and at the same time a method of serving God. Smith also discusses the idea that Rebbe Nachman has been influence by Romanticism which he possibly encountered when he lived among the Maskilim (Jews of the Enlightenment) of Uman or in his mysterious stay in Lemberg (Lvov/ Lviv) for 8 months.  Yehuda Liebes considers this stay in Lemberg was connected to the Frankists. He may be correct but unfortunately Liebes (like Gershom Scholem and others) put the Sabbateans and Frankists into the same category. The Frankists however through a conversion to Catholicism were also doing the tikun hakelali for their sins as former Sabbateans by embracing the Virgin Mother (Matronita) of Czestochowa. Rebbe Nachman was called to remain among the non-baptised Frankists and bring this tikun which he had learnt from the Frankists in Lemberg to the observant Jewish community in a more hidden way. It is here that we find the Jewish and Catholic roots of phenomenology and Romanticism, meeting and encountering one another in the year 1808.
Rebbe Nachman sees all philosophies and ideas as melodies and songs and he believes that one can tune even heresy into beautiful music. Thus Rebbe Nachman was ecumenical in a time when ecumenism seemed impossible as was Jacob Frank. In a sense John Paul II was their spiritual successor with his ideas of ‘theology of the body’ drawn from his Polish background in phenomenology and Romanticism. Carl Anderson and Jose Granados use the idea of music to explain John Paul II’s ‘theology of the body’. They drew this musical explanation from Tolkien who was greatly influenced by Jewish tales and mysticism. They write that John Paul II’s ‘three original experiences’ of ‘original solitude’, ‘original unity’ and ‘original nakedness’ is a form of ‘primordial music’. This primordial music can be distorted but never destroyed. This is very similar to Rebbe Nachman’s musical ideas about heresy. What sounds like noise is in fact a hidden pattern or melody of Divine design that just needs some fine tuning. The ‘original harmony’ is somehow still with us so that we can discern how the music has become noise. They write: “We call the original experiences ‘original’ because they lie at the basis of every other experience and provide the theme for every other music we compose in our lives”.
Thus the term Primordial (or Kadmon in Hebrew) may be a better word than ‘original’ and Levinas would use the term ‘immemorial past’. This is the Primordial Song that rises from the deep (abyss/ tahom) from its source in the hidden melody beyond all knowing. It is also called the Song of Creation, Song of Miriam, Song of Moses and Song of the Future. Rebbe Nachman associates the Messiah (Mashiach) with the ‘Voice of Rebuke’ which is a voice of music and of melody not of chastisement. It is associated with the River that flowed out of Eden which is the source of the Song of the Future. The ‘Voice of Rebuke’ will bring all people into intimate relationship with God through the power of melody, song and joy. This four-fold song mentioned above contains all the ten kinds of Song and will be played on a 72 stringed instrument according to Rebbe Nachamn and the Jewish tradition. In gematria 72 is the number for Khesed (Mercy/ Loving kindness) so this ‘Voice of Rebuke’ is also a Voice of great mercy (Khesed) who is the Messiah himself and all will be drawn to him because he can get on each person’s level and relate to them with unbridled mercy. This Voice leads each person to ethical conduct and good deeds. The word Chasid or Hasid is from this word Khesed, a true Hasid is a practitioner of Divine Mercy. The Catholic encounters the Divine Mercy as Jesus in the Eucharist who inspires them to works of mercy (ethical transcendence). In Breslov Hasidism the daily holy hour called ‘hitbodedut’ in which one speaks heart to heart to God in one’s native tongue parallels the Catholic Holy Hour of Eucharistic Adoration in which one has a heart encounter with the Sacred Heart which is present in the Blessed Sacrament.
Rebbe Nachman was a forerunner in the idea of music therapy and today there are many who are using music as a form of therapeutic treatment. Professor Rudd writes of ‘musicking’ as a form of self –care. He tells a story of a theologian who cured himself of asthma by ‘musicking’. Rudd considers music to be a cultural immunogen that promotes good health in society and among individuals. He also discusses how ‘musicking’ can be a catalyst for stress and anger and a help in overcoming depression and social phobia. 
Deborah Salmon also writes about music therapy as a psychospiritual process that is valuable in the field of palliative care. She writes:
“Music, with its intrinsic capacity for beauty and expression, has been used throughout time to convey the gamut of human emotion and experience. The literature on the use of music therapy in palliative care illustrates its remarkable depth and breadth in enhancing the lives of terminally ill people and their families. Music therapists in palliative care regularly describe profound encounters with patients...”.Salmon writes of the terminally ill feeling “a call of the deep”. It is in this realm of depth which offers encounters of wholeness, integrity, and meaning. Music sings the language of the deep and thus evokes imagery and feelings that take the patient beyond the realms of ordinary consciousness. This ‘call of the deep’ may manifest in a psychological or personal manner drawing one into treasured memories of the past and/or unresolved issues. Or it may manifest in a spiritual and transpersonal manner where the music gives a powerful sense of beauty, meaning and the Divine realm.  This would fit with Emmanuel Levinas’ ideas about passivity as the abyss (deep) from which meaning rises.
Rebbe Nachman in his teachings on ‘hitbodedut’ speaks of Divine Intimacy and then going beyond this into the abyss or void or Noplace (bitul/ nothingness). The secret to bitul is to just close your mouth and listen in silence, which even if it is but a moment, is something anyone can achieve according to Rebbe Nachman. This leads one to a Jewish Dark Night of the Soul in which the Chasid enters the deep (abyss/ tahom). Zvi Mark refers to this place as the Void. As the Void we are led back even further into the immemorial past to the moment of “without form and void” of Genesis 1. It is only possible to find God in the void by silence and melody. However the purpose of entering this high mystical state that breaks the bounds of time and space is not to remain there but to return and encounter the needs of others in a spiritual programme of mercy and charity (tzadakah). God desires your worship more than your bitul (nothingness).
This encounter of the hidden melody as Divine Mercy is then expressed in heart-felt song and dance in worship of God and a perceiving of the Divine Melody in all things and all people. This is a form of ethical transcendence in which we see the good in all and attain emuna (faith) that even in the darkest places of our lives it is all for the best. Both Catholicism and Breslov Hasidism see the Messiah as central to this encounter with the Divine and others. These others in some mystical sense share in the spirit of the Messiah son of Joseph.
Both the spirituality of Breslov and of John Paul II's ‘Theology of the Body’ begin with the figure of Man and from him and his nuptial life ascend to the figure of the Primordial Man (Adam Kadmon), (who is also the Blessed Holy One of Israel), and his Bride (Shekhinah) who is also his sister, daughter and mother. Through the example of human intimacy one ascends to the deeper levels of Divine Intimacy. When ones reaches this higher level one is in the realm of ‘all good and no evil’ in which one can then see and hear all philosophies and beliefs in a new light as a river of melody in which one can truly encounter the other and see the truth of their heart in a face to face encounter. This heart has a melody waiting to burst forth as a new and unique song, melody, dance or other creative act. In this way all the lost sparks of melody will be regathered into the one song or act that encompasses all acts in the Divine Will which manifests as Divine Mercy for souls.
 Song of Songs 2:3
 Rabbi Yitzach Ginsburgh, Basics in Kabbalah and Chassidus, <http://www.inner.org/worlds/adam.htm>
 Dan ben Amos, Folktales of the Jews (The Jewish Publications Society: Philadelphia,2007), 59.
 Yehuda Liebes, Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism (State University of New York Press: Albany,1993), 148-50.
 ibid, 137
 Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum, The Wings of the Sun: Traditional Jewish Healing in Theory and Practice, (Azamra Institute; Jerusalem; 1995), 152.
 Rabbi Shalom Arush, The Garden of Yearning: The Lost Princess, (Munah Outreach: Israel,2008),21.
 Chanani Haran Smith, Tuning the Soul; Music as a Spiritual Process in the Teachings of Rabbi Nahman of Bratzlav (IJS Studies in Judaica; Volume 10; Brill Academic Publishers; Boston; 2009), 49
 Travis Dumsday, “Divine Hiddenness as Divine Mercy” in Religious Studies Volume 48 Issue 02, (June 2012), 183-189
 Yehuda Liebes, Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism, 137.
 Rabbi Chaim Kramer, Mashiach: Who? What? Why? How? Where? And When?, (Breslov Research Institue: Jeruslaem/New York, 1994), 26-7.
Yehuda Liebes, Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism, 137.
 Chanani Haran Smith, Tuning the Soul; Music as a Spiritual Process in the Teachings of Rabbi Nahman of Bratzlav , 53.
 Rabbi Chaim Kramer, Mashiach: Who? What? Why? How? Where? And When?, 65-67.
 Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum, The Wings of the Sun: Traditional Jewish Healing in Theory and Practice, 123.
 Likutey Moharan II 24.
Yehuda Liebes, Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism, 138.
 Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum, The Wings of the Sun: Traditional Jewish Healing in Theory and Practice, 133-4, 145-6
 Michael Fishbane, “To Jump For Joy: the Rites of Dance According to R.Nahman of Bratzlav” Jewish Journal of Thought and Philosphy 6 ( Harward Academic Publishers: USA, 1997), 371.
 ibid, 373.
 Chanani Haran Smith, Tuning the Soul; Music as a Spiritual Process in the Teachings of Rabbi Nahman of Bratzlav, 63.
 Chanani Haran Smith, Tuning the Soul; Music as a Spiritual Process in the Teachings of Rabbi Nahman of Bratzlav, 59.
 Yehuda Liebes, Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism, 146.
 Carl Anderson and Jose Granados, Called to Love: Approaching John Paul II’s theology of the Body (Double day: Sydney,2009), 23.
 Ibid, 24
 Rabbi Chaim Kramer, Mashiach: Who? What? Why? How? Where? And When?, 66.
 ibid 66-67.
 ibid 67.
 Even Rudd, Music Therapy; A Perspective from the Humanities (Publisher: Barcelona; 2010), 162-3.
 ibid, 164
 ibid, 165-8
 Deborah Salmon, “Music Therapy as Psychospiritual Process in Palliative Care” Journal of Palliative Care 17:3 (Centre For Bioethics: Canada,2001), 142.
 Ozer Bergman, Where Earth and Heaven Kiss: A Guide to Rebbe Nachman’s Path of Meditation (Breslov Research Institute: Jerusalem/New York, 2006), 229-30.
 Ibid, 231.
 Zvi Mark, Mysticism and Madness: The Religious Thought of Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav (Continuum; London and New York; 2009), 162.
 Ozer Bergman, Where Earth and Heaven Kiss: A Guide to Rebbe Nachman’s Path of Meditation, 251.
 Rabbi Chaim Kramer, Mashiach: Who? What? Why? How? Where? And When?, 26.
 Bahir 63 in Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, The Bahir, Boston:Weiser Books, 1979.
Anderson, Carl and Granados, Jose. Called to Love: Approaching John Paul II’s theology of the Body Doubleday: Sydney,2009.
Arush, Shalom (Rabbi) The Garden of Yearning: The Lost Princess, Munah Outreach: Israel, 2008.
Ben Amos, Dan. Folktales of the Jews The Jewish Publications Society: Philadelphia, 2007. Bergman, Ozer. Where Earth and Heaven Kiss: A Guide to Rebbe Nachman’s Path of Meditation Breslov Research Institute: Jerusalem/New York, 2006.
Dumsday, Travis. “Divine Hiddenness as Divine Mercy” in Religious Studies Volume 48 Issue 02, (June 2012), 183-196.
Fishbane, Michael. “To Jump For Joy: the Rites of Dance According to R.Nahman of Bratzlav” Jewish Journal of Thought and Philosphy 6 Harward Academic Publishers: USA, 1997, 371-387.
Ginsburgh, Yitzach (Rabbi). Basics in Kabbalah and Chassidus, <http://www.inner.org/worlds/adam.htm>
Greenbaum, Rabbi Avraham. The Wings of the Sun: Traditional Jewish Healing in Theory and Practice, Azamra Institute; Jerusalem; 1995.
Kaplan, Aryeh (Rabbi) The Bahir Boston:Weiser Books, 1979.
Kramer, Chaim. Mashiach: Who? What? Why? How? Where? And When?, Breslov Research Institue: Jeruslaem/New York, 1994.
Liebes, Yehuda. Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism State University of New York Press: Albany,1993.
Mark, Zvi. Mysticism and Madness: The Religious Thought of Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav Continuum; London and New York; 2009.
Rudd, Even. Music Therapy; A Perspective from the Humanities Publisher: Barcelona; 2010.
Salmon, Deborah. “Music Therapy as Psychospiritual Process in Palliative Care” Journal of Palliative Care 17:3 (Centre For Bioethics: Canada,2001), 142-146.
Smith, Chanani Haran. Tuning the Soul: Music as a Spiritual Process in the Teachings of Rabbi Nahman of Bratzlav IJS Studies in Judaica; Volume 10; Brill Academic Publishers; Boston; 2009.