I love opinionated non-PC people. This blog is to vent my opinions on life, the universe and everything. Which is 42 which in gematria is "My Heart" (LBY) according to Rabbi Abulafia. The Divine Heart is the centre of everything.

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Dayan Family, y-dna, Hillel and Calabria: A Crypto Jewish Journey

The Dayan family are a famous Jewish family originally from Aleppo in Syria. Aleppo is also famous for the Hebrew version of the Bible known as the Aleppo codex. Aleppo has been hit hard by all the turmoil in Syria in recent months. The Dayan family has always claimed Davidic status from their descent from a branch of the Babylonian Exilarchs. However like the House of Hillel the Dayan family has Davidic status only through a female ancestress who was a Davidic heiress of the Babylonian Exilarchs descended from the House of David of R1b L21 ydna. The Dayan male line is of the Tribe of Manesseh of ydna R1a Z2123 a branch of R1a Z93 (the y-dna signature of those descended from King Osee the last King of Israel and his Manassehite warrior horsemen who went into the East after the fall of Israel to the Assyrians). Many of the Dayan family were learned rabbis and prosperous merchants.

The Dayan ancestor David Soslan was briefly the Babylonian Exilarch as David V in the late 12th century as the maternal grandson of Chasdai V Babylonian Exilarch (born 1106 d.1150). He was deposed by a faction that did not approve of having an Exilarch who was only of Davidic status on the maternal line. He was replaced by Samuel II (of Mosul) who was the son of Natronai III who had been deposed by David Soslan when his faction had proclaimed him Exilarch on the death of Daniel II the maternal uncle of David V Soslan. David Soslan later married Queen Tamar of Georgia. David Soslan was descended from the branch of the Georgian Royal House that descended on the male line from the Khazar Princes descended from the lost Tribe of Manasseh who had re-embraced Judaism in the 8th century. 

The first to use the name Dayan in the Aleppo family was Moshe Dayan who was born in 1500 who was a descendant in the direct male line from David X Babylonian Exilarch (b.1305) who reigned in the 14th century.  David X descended from Hisdai (or Chasdai) VI the son of David V Soslan by his first wife his maternal cousin Chana the daughter of Solomon V Babylonian Exilarch (d.1165).  David X was deposed in 1341 and his family moved to Aleppo the home of his wife Lady Tzadika the daughter of Rav Sadaya II of Aleppo. His son Mar Sadaya of Babylon married Ada the daughter of Rav Moshe II of Aleppo who descended from Azarya (Azariah) the Babylonian Exilarch (d.1000). The descendants of Mar Sadaya were known as the Sadayan claimants to the throne of the Exilarchy. Sadayan later became Dayan. The name Dayan means "Judge" in Hebrew.

The Dayan family were the leaders and Rabbis of Aleppo for many centuries. The Aleppan Jewish community was joined by many Sephardi Jewish families after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. The leading family of the Sephardi Aleppan Jews was the Kassin family. They were later joined by many Francos (French and Italian Jews) from the 17th century onward. The Francos were much less strict and were more modern in their lifestyle than the older Aleppan Jewish families. In the 18th century two factions arose in the Aleppo community- the more rigid group led by 
Rabbi Linaido and the more liberal group by Rabbi Yehuda Kassin. Aleppo also started to decline with the lessening of trade with Persia so that many of the more liberal group left  Aleppo towards the end of the 18th century. Many of these families traded throughout Europe and had branches of their extended families in Spain, France, Italy, England, Poland, Ukraine and Ireland. Rabbi Yehuda Kassin's reform minded son Raphael became the Chief Rabbi of Bagdad and a supporter of those Jews who were more modern in their interpretation of Jewish law and custom.

Joseph Dayan (b.1670) a prosperous Aleppan merchant established a merchant base in Messina in Italy in the first half of the 18th century and he sent his two Francos sons-in-laws Eliyahu Hillel of Bagdad and Rafael Safra of Aleppo to Sicily with their wives Sarah and Zeraphia. Eliyahu Hillel took the name of Andrea Aiello and his wife Sarah became Seraphina and Rafael became Rafaele Seraphino and his wife changed her name Zeraphia to Sophia. They joined the other crypto-Jewish families in Messina and practiced Judaism in secret. Andrea and Seraphina Aiello's two children Yosef and Shoshana born in Aleppo became Guiseppe and Rosa Aiello. Guiseppe Aiello married his cousin Sarah (Serafina) Seraphino the daughter of Rafaele and Sophia. His sister Rosa Aiello married the Jew Guiseppe Montefiore of Toscano near Belmonte in Calabria. Guiseppe Aiello's son Serafino was the crypto Hazan (worship leader) or Rabbi of the crypto-Jewish communities of Calabria (with his friend Angelo Martini) who had spend time in Modena with Rabbi Cohen (Laudatio Sacerdoti) in study and married the Rabbi's niece Guiditta (Judith).

Joseph Dayan the merchant's grandson Joseph Dayan with his wife Esther Dayan the daughter of Rav Joseph Dayan (b.1730) moved to Poland and the Ukraine areas. His son Isaac Dayan who was married to Chana Kassin, the daughter of Rav Yehuda Kassin of Aleppo, had a daughter Sarah who married her cousin David Morel of Krakow. David Morel was the son of Liebel Morel (aka Yehuda Samuel or Semel or She'muel) of Krakow and Malka Dayan the sister of Isaac Dayan. David and Sarah's daughter Chana (Anna) Morel (b.1812) was to marry Michele Aiello the son of Francesco Aiello of Messina and his wife Rosa Montefiore of Cozenza in Calabria. Joseph Dayan(born 1670) had a grandson Saul or Sha'ul Dayan who was a merchant in Sicily who took the name Paulo Diana and also used the name Paulo Daino.

Guiseppe Aiello aka Joseph Hillel born 1728 as a Jew in Aleppo Syria married Serafina Seraphino aka Sarah Safra born in 1730 as a Jewess in Aleppo. Their children* were:

1. Serafino Aiello aka Serach Hillel born 1750 in Messina Sicily. He married Guiditta (Judith) Sacredoti. Their children were: Maria Aiello (born 1775) who married a crypto-Jew Pasquale Nero of Conflenti in Calabria descended from the de Castro and de Neira families of Spain; Sarah (Serafina) Aiello (Jakes) (born 1780) who married a crypto-Jew John Taylor (Schneider) of Derbyshire in England of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry; Carmela Aiello (born 1782) who married the crypto-Jew Andrea Serra of Naples the natural son of Prince Pasquale Serra of the Davidic House of Serra; Francesco Aiello (born 1790) who married the Jewess Rosa Montefiore of Calabria descended from Mexican crypto-Jews.

2. Salvatore Aiello aka Mordechai Hillel born in 1752 at Messina in Sicily.

3. Serafina Aiello aka Sarah Hillel born in 1755 at Messina in Sicily. She married Benvenuto Sacredoti (born 1753) the son of Jacob and Benvenuta Sacredoti (ha Cohen/ Coen) of Modena. They had a son Giacomo (Jacob) Benvenuto of Calabria (born 1773).

4. Carmela Aiello aka Malka Hillel born in 1760 at Messina in Sicily. She married Rafael Montefiore of Cozenza in Calabria. Their daughter was Rosa Montefiore who married her cousin Francesco Aiello.

The Hillel family of Bagdad in Iraq were known as a Jewish Francos family and most likely their ancestor came to the Middle East from Italy with other Jewish Francos families who settled in Syria and Iraq beginning in the 17th century. The Hillel or Aiello family claimed descent from the Davidic House of Hillel. They go back to the Ayala family of Spain to the Kings of Pamplona who descended from Jimeno (Sh'mon) the Strong the Mothman Atlal (aka the Hillel of Mumhan) who was the son of Ecgric or Athelric (the Ruler Hillel) King of East Anglia (d.636) whose father was Malfdarta the Hillelite Nasi of Mumhan (Munster) in Ireland. These Hillelite Nasiim came to Munster in the 4th century from Palestine (Israel). Variants of Hillel are Aiello, Ajello, Ayala, Aillil, Atlal. In Ireland the initial "h" sound was transferred to an "a" sound becoming Aillil and in Spain the final "l" was dropped. My own maternal grandfather was named Hillyer but his sisters pronounced his name as Illya.

Gamaliel VI the Nasi of Palestine came to Ireland in 415 AD where his daughter Morag (Mongfind) was the first wife and Queen of High-King Eochaidh. Gamaliel VI's son Mar Nathan (aka Crimthann Mor) and his younger daughter Merab (aka Meadaib or Mira Davida) accompanied him to Munster (Mumhan). In Munster was re-established the dynasty of the Hillel Nasiim (Ua-n-Aillil).

 Nasi was originally the title for a Presiding Prince of Davidic status in the Jewish Sanhedrin and later the Davidic leader of a Jewish community. The Jewish term Rosh Galuta or Rosh Golus means Davidic Head of the Exile and is also translated as Exilarch in English. The Babylonian Exilarch was the Davidic Prince with authority over all the Jews in the East. The Jewish Kings of Narbonne were the Exilarchs of Western Europe descended from the Babylonian Exilarchs. The Palestinian Nasi or Davidic Prince from the House of Hillel was also the Nasi or Presiding President of the Great Sanhedrin. When Gamaliel VI died in 426 the authority of the Great Sanhedrin went into abeyance and Judaism lost its magisterial teaching authority. 

Many ultra-orthodox Jews today think that the Dayan family of Aleppo and Rabbi Yosef Dayan (born 1945 in Mexico) are direct male line descendants of King David and they claim that Rabbi Yosef Dayan is the heir and Davidic Nasi. He is supported by the preparatory ultra-orthodox Sanhedrin established in Tiberias in 2004 as candidate for Jewish King. While Rabbi Yosef Dayan does have Nasi status it is through a maternal heiress not the direct male line. 

* They also had other children which may have included Rafaele Aiello and Michele Aiello. I have seen at least one Aiello descendant who has tested for ydna and belongs to R1b ydna.

Saturday, September 03, 2016

Galatians 2 and the Highly Esteemed Ones: A Hebrew Catholic Interpretation

 The Jerusalem Council

In my last blog post I wrote about how my alternative reading and translation of the Greek of Galatians 1:15-16 gives a more humble and different understanding of Paul. The present translations into English make Paul sound very self-willed and almost arrogant in his claims to "preach" the Gospel. Paul does take pains to stress that he was called to God's grace and given his mission of proclamation to the Gentiles by a direct revelation of the Resurrected Messiah and not by any man- made group. However when read and translated slightly different, the present almost hostility in the text, in regard to the Jerusalem Church is lessened and even removed.

The Greek word δοκοῦντες (thokountes) and its variants are found in Galatians 2:2,6 and 9. Based on the root meaning of δοκεω (thokeo) meaning I think, appear, seem it has been translated in to English as reputed which in modern English has a rather negative inference as if one is questioning the reputation. Thayer's Greek Lexicon however states:

"...2. intransitive, to seem, be accounted, reputed: Luke 10:36; Luke 22:24; Acts 17:18; Acts 25:27; 1 Corinthians 12:22; 2 Corinthians 10:9; Hebrews 12:11; ἔδοξα ἐμαυτῷ δεῖν πρᾶξαι, I seemed to myself, i. e. I thought, Acts 26:9 (cf. Buttmann, 111 (97)); οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν those that are accounted to rule, who are recognized as rulers, Mark 10:42; οἱ δοκοῦντες εἶναι τί those who are reputed to be somewhat (of importance), and therefore have influence, Galatians 2:6 (9) (Plato, Euthyd., p. 303 c.); simply, οἱ δοκοῦντες those highly esteemed, of repute, looked up to, influential, Galatians 2:2 (often in Greek writings as Euripides, Hec. 295, where cf. Schafer; (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 45, 7))..." 
Thus δοκοῦντες in Galatians 2 should be translated as "esteemed ones" or "highly esteemed ones" of the early Church of Jerusalem. Paul is not questioning their authority but he is humbly acknowledging their esteemed positions as the leaders of the Church and he humbly goes to see them in Jerusalem to submit his style of proclaiming the gospel to the Gentiles, with gentleness that doesn't burden the new believers with too much too soon, for their approval. 

It would seem Ananias who baptised Paul sent him to the desert of Arabia for three years where he most likely lived in a Essene-like monastic community of new believers from among the Essene mystical Jews learning more about his new Messianic faith and planning his strategy for his future mission to the Gentiles. This would explain Paul's preference for the simple life and his great appreciation of the celibate life. It is probably there he learnt the Essene mystical secrets and the Essene method of studying Scripture (from these disciples of Menachem the Essene) which he combined with the seven principles he learnt from the Pharisee House of Hillel under Rabban Gamaliel.

After Paul's return to Damascus he goes to see Peter and James before he undertakes his mission to the Gentiles in Syria and Cicilia. He spent 15 days with Peter and it may have been Peter who ordained him as a priest and Bishop or it may have been Ananias in Damascus after he returned from Arabia. We see that the early church used the model of training men for the priesthood for at least 3 years in imitation of Yeshua training his 12 apostles for three years before their ordinations to the new covenant priesthood.

As Paul took his revelation of the crucified Messiah very seriously so does he take the further divine revelation given to him to go to Jerusalem to submit his strategies for evangelisation of the Gentiles (after he had been practicing them for 14 years) to the people and leaders of the Churches in Judea (Gal.1:22). Paul is concerned to confirm that his revelations and strategies are true and valid and that he is not being led astray. He thus besides meeting with the Churches of Judea, goes humbly to the "highly esteemed ones" (δοκοῦντες) of the Jewish Mother Church in Jerusalem - Peter, James and John. These three hold the three high seats of the New Covenant Sanhedrin with Peter as the Messianic Av bet Din (chief Rabbi or Teacher), James (the Lord's Brother) as the Messianic Davidic Nasi or President and John (the Presbyter) as the Messianic High Priest.

Galatians 2:2 thus reads: 

"Moreover I went up (to Jerusalem) according to a divine revelation and set before them (the Jewish Churches of Judea), the good news that I proclaim to the Gentiles, as well as a personal meeting with the "Highly Esteemed Ones" lest by some manner  I was running or had run in vain."

Paul was obviously pleased with reception of his plan for the Gentile evangelisation and their acceptance that the Gentile believers did not have to be circumcised and become Jews. He saw his success in that his Gentile disciple Titus was not made to be circumcised. He had to fight hard against a group of false brothers who wished to burden these new believers with certain Jewish customs and circumcision as necessary to salvation in the Messiah. This is recorded by Luke in the Book of Acts. Paul in Galatians uses a play on words and refers to these false brothers as the δοκούντων εἶναί τι  (certain ones reputed to be someone) as opposed to the apostles who are the true οἱ δοκοῦντες (the Highly Esteemed Ones) who added nothing extra to Paul's proposal for the Gentile believers. Galatians 2:6-7 reads:

"Moreover there are those certain ones reputed to be someone (the false brothers) but what sort they were at one time doesn't make a difference to me. God doesn't take notice of the outward appearance of a man. Indeed the Highly Esteemed Ones (the true Apostles) had nothing to add to me (his position in regards to the Gentiles) but on the contrary they saw that I have been entrusted with the evangelisation of the uncircumcision, just as Peter with the circumcision."
Paul does not undermine Peter's role but proclaims it while proclaiming his unique mission to those who would question it under the influence of the false brothers. In verse 9 he once again refers to these Highly Esteemed Ones (οἱ δοκοῦντες) of Peter, James and John who approve his apostleship. Paul adds another title to them as the Pillars (στῦλοι/ styloi). His respect for them however doesn't blind him to the fact that they can be wrong and need godly correction from a fellow apostle when they don't practice what they teach. Nor does it mean that the apostles can't have disputes in good Jewish style for the sake of the Kingdom in order to come closer to the truth. Galatians 2:9 reads:

"And having known the grace given to me James, Peter and John the Highly Esteemed Ones, being the Pillars, they gave to Barnabas and I, the right hands of Eucharistic Communion which we should take to the Gentiles and they to the circumcision (Jews)."

 Anti-Semites in the church often quote Galatians which has been translated by those with anti-Jewish and anti-Judaism prejudices throughout the history of the Gentile Church. However many times this is done unwittingly, just out of Gentile ignorance of the Jewish background of Paul and his teachings. Paul would be horrified at this distortion of his wonderful plan of freedom in the Messiah for both Jews (allowing them to be Jews) and Gentiles (allowing them to be truly of their distinct cultures). It is time that we Catholics take seriously the call of Cardinal Schonborn to take the propositions of the Messianic Jewish Rabbi Mark Kinzer in his book addressed to the Catholic Church on Nostra Aetate and its further development in the living Tradition of the Church. Is Rabbi Kinzer a new reversed St Paul coming to proclaim the place and freedom of the Jewish believers in the Church? 


Thursday, September 01, 2016

Doubly Chosen: Galatians 1:15-16: A Hebrew Catholic Interpretation of a Marian and Eucharistic Mystery

I have discussed in other places the wonderful book by a orthodox Jewish scholar Judith Deutsch Kornblatt. Her book is titled "Doubly Chosen: Jewish Identity, the Soviet Intelligentsia, and the Russian Orthodox". 'Doubly chosen' is a term used by Russian Orthodox Christians of Jewish ancestry to demonstrate that they are firstly chosen by God through their birth into the Jewish people and secondly chosen by the Lord through the grace of baptism. Many Hebrew Catholics (Catholic Jews) also like this term for understanding their relationship to the Jewish people and the Church (which is mainly Gentile).

According to orthodox Jewish teaching one is Jewish if one's mother is Jewish or of maternal Jewish ancestry or if one converts to Judaism according to Halakah. The convert to Judaism is said to have come under the wings of the Shekhinah. In a sense the feminine Shekhinah as a mother brings through the waters of the conversional mikveh (a kind of symbolic womb) the new son or daughter of Israel. Thus a Jew receives his election or chosenness through the womb of his mother whether a biological mother or the heavenly mother Shekhinah who is also Kneset Yisrael.
St Paul the great Pharasaic Rabbi of Tarsus who embraced Yeshua as the Messiah also alludes to this concept of the 'doubly chosen'. In Galatians 1:15 he speaks of this double call or election. In the Douai Rheims Bible it says

"...But when it pleased him, who separated (ἀφορίσας) me from my mother's womb, and called (καλέσας) me by his grace..."
Here we see that Paul associates his selection as a Jew as coming from his mother's womb. In the Greek two different words are used to represent these elections. For the physical chosenness as a Jew is used ἀφορίσας (aforisas) which means to separate which alludes to God separating the people Israel from the nations to be his separate or set apart holy nation. For the calling or chosenness of the new covenant grace of baptism is used καλέσας (kalesas) which means to call or invite.

Thus Paul confirms the teaching of orthodox Judaism that one's set apart or separate status is due to the maternal status of coming from the mother's womb not from the seed (sperma) of the father. Paul elaborates more on this in Romans 9 where he uses Isaac as his example that not all who come from the seed (sperma) of Abraham and Israel are part of the separated children of Israel. He alludes to the verse in Genesis about "in Isaac shall thy seed (zera) be called (κληθήσεταί)". Abraham had Ishmael and the sons of Keturah but they are not considered the children of the promise as they had Gentile mothers. Paul singles out Sarah and Rebecca as Hebrew mothers who conceive those who are considered the children of the promise.

It is interesting that Paul uses in the Greek the same word for his call to grace as the call of Isaac's seed. In a sense he is saying that even in Old Testament times the grace of the New Law (living the Torah according to the spirit and heart) was in act as it was not only one's birth but the grace of the promise that was important in one being one of the chosen children of God. Gentiles in the New Covenant receive the grace of baptism which also alludes to the sanctified waters of the mother's womb of Our Lady and the Church.

The encounter of Paul with a bright light and then the voice of the Lord speaking to him in Hebrew parallels Moses encounter of the burning bush and the voice of the Lord speaking to him in Hebrew from its midst. The burning bush represents the pure and immaculate Virgin (manifesting out of Eternity) and thus as Moses' encounter with God though the burning bush is a Marian encounter so is Paul's bright light the light of the pure and immaculate Virgin (manifesting out of Eternity) through which he encounters the crucified Lord. In both accounts the Name of God is revealed. This is in a sense the Marian mystery and light of the Incarnation manifesting out of Eternity into time in different but similar manifestations. At the Incarnation Our Lady is bathed in the light of God as the angel reveals the Name of her Son the Messiah to her.

Paul also in Romans 9:24-26 alludes to the fact that the Gentiles who God is calling are considered to be of the status of the lost Tribes of Israel and he also alludes to Hosea where it speaks about Ephraim returning to Judah and to their finding grace in the wilderness of the Gentiles (Jer. 31:2). Orthodox Jewish law states that the lost Tribes are classified as Gentiles for the purpose of Halakah and would need a conversion ceremony to rejoin the Jewish people in keeping Halakah. Judaism traditionally accepts anyone back into Judaism who has proven maternal Jewish ancestry for up to ten generations without a conversion ceremony. Some groups however especially among the Ashkenazim will only accept them if it is only 3 or 4 generations that they are outside the Jewish community.

In this sense Paul would seem to see the Gentile believers as the Gentile-status House of Israel/Ephraim and the Jews as the Torah-observant House of Judah. He forsees their eventual reunion in Romans 11 when "all Israel will be saved".

Galatians 1:16 reads in the Douai-Rhiems Bible:
"...To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the Gentiles, immediately I condescended not to flesh and blood..."
It has traditionally been translated to mean that Paul didn't defer to any human authority. However it could be interpreted to mean that after Paul received baptism and confirmation from Ananias he didn't at once enter into eucharistic (flesh and blood) priesthood which imparts through the laying on of hands the body and blood of the Messiah to others. It is only after 3 years of training in the exile of Arabia that he returns to Jerusalem to Peter and James where he enters into the ministry of the fullness of the priesthood. The word translated as condescended (προσανεθέμην) can mean "to lay on besides, hence to undertake besides" and is often translated "to consult, impart or communicate". Thus Paul may be saying that his primary call was to proclaim to the Gentiles first about the grace of baptism and only later to impart the mystery of the Eucharist (body and blood) to them. Thus we could translate Galatians 1:15 as:

"...To reveal his Son in me that I might proclaim him, among the Gentiles I didn't immediately impart the body and blood (Eucharist)..."
This reflected Paul's apostolic strategy based on that of the House of Hillel's teaching of introducing the faith in stages that would not burden the new converts too much. It also reflects the early Church's great reverence and secrecy surrounding the mystery of the Eucharist. Marian and Eucharistic mysteries had to be gradually introduced to the former pagans or they would be led astray into pagan and superstitious practices. This would also reflect Our Lord's example where he proclaimed the Gospel and baptised the apostles first and only after 3 years did he reveal the Eucharistic mystery to his apostles at the Last Supper. This interpretation of Paul lessens the idea that Paul is stressing his own independence and authority as opposed to that of the Jerusalem Church.

The phrase "and called (καλέσας) me by his grace (χάριτος) to reveal his Son in me" should not be separated by a verse division. This feminine charitos alludes to Our Lady who is the"Full of Grace" and God's created Grace in action. Thus Paul is revealing in hidden form (perhaps unwittingly) a Marian mystery connected with the Double Marian calling or election of the Jewish disciple and a Marian calling of the Gentile disciple. Like Paul the Jewish disciple of the Messiah Yeshua is called by Our Lady (grace) in order to reveal the hidden crucified and Eucharistic Yeshua dwelling in him and all Jews. Paul then desires to share this with the Gentiles through Our Lady in the womb waters of baptism in order to lead them to behold the crucified and Eucharistic Yeshua who is the God who dwells in the flesh and blood of his Mother as Man. Thus we can now read Galatians 1:15-16 as:

"...But when it pleased him, who separated (ἀφορίσας) me from my mother's womb, and called (καλέσας) me by his grace (χάριτος) to reveal his Son in me that I might proclaim him, among the Gentiles I didn't immediately impart the body and blood (Eucharist)..."


 Our Lady as the Burning Bush