I love opinionated non-PC people. This blog is to vent my opinions on life, the universe and everything. Which is 42 which in gematria is "My Heart" (LBY) according to Rabbi Abulafia. The Divine Heart is the centre of everything.

Thursday, April 27, 2017

Rebbe Nachman and Jacob Frank: A Universal Reparation

 My ancestor Rebbe Nachman of Breslov

In Likutey Moharan I:164 Rebbe Nachman of Breslov reveals through a parable his approach to revealing the deep hidden mysteries of the Messiah and his Kingdom. Jacob Frank had tried to reveal these mysteries openly but both the Jewish and Christian communities of the 18th century were not ready for Torah observant mystical Jews to maintain their Jewishness within the Catholic Church. In the end Frank was forced to call his followers, who had received open baptism, to silence and to observe their Jewish customs secretly and privately and to appear as Gentiles to their fellow Catholics. As a result of this approach the Frankists were assimilated into the Gentile culture within a few generations. They were encouraged by Frank to change their names and become farmers, soldiers, priests and nuns.

Other groups such as those led by Reb Moshe ben Zalman the son of the Alter Rebbe and some of Rebbe Nachman and Rav Nosan of Nemirov's children and grandchildren [including Rebbe Nachman's daughters Udil Auerbach (Della O'Brien) and Chaya Zaslavski (Catherine Lavin)] also were baptised (though more quietly) and took Gentile names and occupations but within a few generations their descendants also had lost their Jewish identity. Rebbe Nachman once said: “My daughters have ru’ach hakodesh (holy spirit), which is close to prophesy. And I’m not talking about Sarah at all!” (Chayei Moharan 583). Rebbe Nachman taught his followers that they must always honour and respect his daughters as they were “precious trees that would give forth rare and goodly fruits.” He also wrote "Be careful with my offspring, make sure they stay within the Hasidic movement." In recent times members of the Breslov movement have sought to trace some of the Rebbe's lost descendants. He had five daughters Udil, Sarah, Miriam, Feige and Chaya.

Rebbe Nachman of Breslov while privately respecting Frank, as did the Baal Shem Tov, realised that this model of Frank would not work as the majority of the Jewish people were not ready to receive the Messiah's identity and that the Church was not ready to receive them with their full Jewish heritage in tact. He realised he would have to water-down the strong Messianic medicine and conceal it in stories and allegories. In Likutey Moharan he spoke of the Jewish people as a Healer and of the Universal Church as a great physician or doctor. However the Jewish people wanted their medicine in the form of folk medicine not the strong drugs and therapies that the Universal people (Catholics) offered.

Hillel Zeitlin a leading Breslov scholar stated that the person of the Messiah and the messianic salvation was at the heart of Rebbe Nachman's concerns. Others have commented that Rebbe Nachman was not just concerned with individual salvation but also national or Jewish salvation and also universal salvation. His famous Universal tikkun was for all people. This was a Catholic or universal reparation which would repair for the damage caused by Sabbateanism and its p'gam habrit (defiling the covenant). This defiling refers to all sexual impurity not just masturbation as seems to be the rather unbalanced obsession of some Hasidim. This universal Marian reparation alludes to the ten sefirot and the ten types of song found in the Psalms. This in turn alludes to the Magnificat of the Virgin Mary in Hebrew with its pattern of nine echoing phrases and the hidden tenth referring to the voice of the Virgin which also mirrors or echoes the nine revealed decrees of Genesis 1 and the tenth hidden one which is the Divine Word and Voice and its echo on Sinai with the ten commandments (words).

Yehuda Liebes a leading Israeli scholar on Jewish mysticism in his studies on the influence of Jacob Frank on Rebbe Nachman comes to correct conclusions that the mysterious journeys and stays in certain places in Rebbe Nachman's life are connected with Rebbe Nachman's 'tikkun ha Kelali' ( universal reparation), which is connected with the Frankists. Yehuda Liebes writes: "R Nahman's journey to Kamenets on his way to the Holy Land, as well as his journey to Lvov, seem to have some connection with his endeavours to amend the Frankist heresy." However like Gershom Scholem and others, Liebes lumps Frankism with Sabbateanism and thus in my opinion misunderstands both Frank and Rebbe Nachman. Jacob Frank was a former Sabbatean who led many Jews out of Sabbateanism in which they had become morally and spiritually impure. This came about by an emphasis on the mysterious 'Eleh' (Goddess of the Zohar) and realising that the only one who could remedy or repair (tikkun) such spiritual pollution was the Lady of the Zohar who Frank came to realise was the Lady of Czestochowa. Those devoted to Her were able in union with her to perform complete or universal acts of reparation. Frank himself was slandered, misinterpreted and condemned by many in both the Catholic and Jewish communities of the 18th century. Frank was to have personal apparitions of the Lady while imprisoned in the fortress of Czestochowa.

Frankism was a Marian movement and Frank stated that they chose Catholic Poland because it was a nation that best understood "the Mother". It was the hidden Frankist or Zoharist leaven that spread in the rest of the Catholic Church that led to a new Marian Age in the history of the Church and world that led to the proclamation of the dogmas of the Immaculate Conception (in 1854) and Assumption (1950). This in a sense was a renewal or revival of the earlier Marian mysticism of the Middle Ages going back to St Hildegarde and St Bernard of Clairvaux and its manifestation among the Rhineland mystics of Catholicism and the Ashkenazi Hasidim of  Judasim coming forth from the noble Davidic families found among both the Jewish and Catholic communities (as well as the Muslim). It was from among these Davidic families that the mystical Book of the Zohar was revealed and would influence the Zoharists (Frankists). Just as their ancestors David and Solomon were led astray by sexual and sensual lust and impurity so some of their Davidic descendants among the Sabbateans and the Occultists were led astray. This Medieval revival of Marian and Eucharistic devotion drew on the Eucharistic and Marian insights of the Arthurian period from the hidden Jewish Christian and Davidic led Church in the British Isles and the Persian Empire of the first millennium which is also reflected in the mystical book of the Zohar.

Frank's followers were divided between those who openly embraced the Catholic faith and hid their Jewishness and those who remained as religious Jews who hid their Catholicism. Rebbe Nachman was one of those hidden followers of the ideas of Frank and his concept of tikkunim for those fallen into the depth of sin, while not agreeing with Frank's open embrace of the Roman Catholicism of their day. Rebbe Nachman alludes to Jacob Frank as the 'choice silver of the tongue of the Tzadik' in 'Likutey Moharan 29:11: Rabbi Moshe Mykoff translation of the Likutey Moharan states; "And this is: That one, too, has found bat maZleh- this corresponds to 'noZlim from LeBaNon'- from the LiBuNa (whiteness) of the mind...All this is alluded to in the words (Proverbs 10:20) "keseF nivchaR leshoN tzadiK' [the last letters of which spell FRaNK.]" So here in "Likutey Moharan" Rebbe Nachman in a hidden way, reveals that Jacob Frank is a true messenger of the Hidden Tzadik. Here we see clearly Jacob Frank described as the one that has found devotion to the Daughter of Destiny (the Mystical Miriam, the Lady of Sorrows who is the lady of Czestochowa) and the way of sexual and intellectual purity flowing (nozlim) from her. It is through devotion to this mysterious Lady that sinners find a way to repair for their past and the damage it has done.

Frank and Nachman taught a general reparation for the generations that had fallen into sexual depravity of the Sabbateans. Thus they offered a spiritual way that was a forerunner of Pope John Paul II's 'Theology of the Body'. John Paul II offered a spiritual way and reparation for the modern generations who have also become morally and spiritually depraved. Rebbe Nachman also went to the Frankist Catholics in order to encourage them to continue following the true teaching of Frank rather than the distorted version being spread by the Prague Sabbateans who had joined with Eva Frank and were leading some of the Frankists back into Sabbatean errors.

Rebbe Nachman and Jacob Frank cannot be understood correctly without really understanding what tikkun (reparation) achieves. The concept of confession is also very important in this spiritual reparation. The Tzadik does not just do tikkun (reparation) for himself but on behalf of his followers, on behalf of all Jews- both religious and secular and for all men tainted with the sin of Adam. He associates the Sabbatean sin with this original sin of Adam. The Sabbateans were from the Mystical cream of the Jewish people and scholars but they like Adam and Eve fell through a desire for sensual delight of experiencing knowledge. Yehuda Liebes writes: "R. Nahman's messianism entails an act of tikkun, and this is the general meaning of 'ha-tikkun ha-kelali'. This name aptly describes R. Nahman's approach in general, since he perceived his mission as the tikkun of man...and the tikkun of his community, as well as that of the whole Jewish people from all their sins; both their wordly sins, which were first and foremost sexual, and the numerous doctrinal sins of his generation that had ravaged traditional Jewish structures ("the Enlightenment"). But above all, he was concerned with the tikkun of the original sin..." 

Yehuda Liebes in his work "Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism" also believes that Rebbe Nachman was influenced by the writings and teachings of Jacob Frank. He lists a number of parallels in their writings. "I shall ...remark on the several other parallels, beginning with those between R. Nahman and Jacob Frank, who, I believe, had a profound influence on R. Nahman. During his youth, in the years of his Hitbodedut...R Nahman may have come across Frankists who had remained Jews, of whom there were many in Podolia." (Yehuda Liebes in 'Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism')

Rebbe Nachman spent a mysterious hidden 8 months in Lvov among the non-Jews. He saw that among the Gentiles of Europe are the descendants of those Israelites who worshipped the golden calves and that part of his role is to do tikkun (reparation) in order to restore the unity of the two Houses of Judah and Ephraim.  Likutey Moharan I:164 also alludes to this mysterious stay of Rebbe Nachman in the Gentile Catholic city of Lvov for eight months. Not only was he visiting literal Catholic medical doctors but he was secretly meeting with the hierarchy of the Ukrainian Catholic Church and other Frankist Jews. After this he burnt his previous writings and hid his teachings in stories and in the mystical language of the Zohar. Some stories were hidden and were not revealed to the general public such as the "Story of the Armour" which was part of the universal reparation because of its obvious drawing on Pauline themes in the New Testament. We can also see his hidden Eucharistic devotion in his secret "Story of the Bread". This story reveals that it is the manna eaters or Eucharistic adorers who are able to understand the deeper Messianic mysteries of Torah.

In the end both approaches bore some fruit by causing Hasidic Judaism and Catholicism to draw closer due to the hidden input of the Frankist mystical ideas in both faiths. We now await a time when the Church will be ready for a Jewish ordinariate or community in its midst that is fully Jewish and fully Catholic so that Israel's heritage may find its place in her midst once again. The true depth of Rebbe Nachman's teaching will be brought to light when it is unveiled by Catholic Jewish Breslov Hasidim in the future time of peace when the Jewish people are re-grafted to the Olive Tree. 

Monday, April 24, 2017

The Tawny Lion of the North: A Poem of Hope


Are you coming?
O Catholic Lion of the North,
With your tawny mane of hair and beard,
In the dark days ahead,
In the midst of a European Crisis,
Of civil war between left and right,
And Isis freely reigning,
North Korean missiles soaring,
American Eagle and Chinese Dragon roaring,
While the Russian bear attacks from the rear,
The Western world shakes with dread and fear,
Bloodshed in Cockerel France,
While Leopard of England is clawed to death,
Water rises and fire spreads,
And the Holy Father imprisoned praying for a miracle,
Where are you Ruadh?
The son of the King of Saxon,
Will you hide in the far West or East?
Or in the southern antipodes like Arthur,
Until you arise in the far North,
To battle of the Birch Tree,
The crescent and the Bear fleeing from your kingly face,
Up goes the cry God for Harry, England and St George once again,
A new Henry the Lion arises from the North,
A South Saxon Duke who like Arthur has trekked,
Into the Arctic and the Antarctic snowy waste,
In service to his fellow man,
A champion of the wounded and damaged soldiers,
And consoler of diseased African youth,
And the son of England’s Rose.
Give up your desire for sparkle and blondes,
Embrace your cross and cross the Tiber,
To your long prophesied destiny,

O sleeping Lion-like Prince of the North.
David's precious seed,
Hidden among the Nations,
Awaiting to arise,
As a new Charlemagne and St Louis,
The Great Monarch of Europe
and Warrior Messiah of Ephraim,
deliver us from our dystopian nightmare,
and return us to our roots,
In a new Crusade
lead us to the holy promised land
where all cry once again
Deus Vult! God Wills it!

Catholic Jewish Trauma and Suffering: A Hebrew Catholic Reflection

I don't think many Gentile Catholics realise how traumatic it can be for Jewish people who accept Yeshua as the Messiah and the rejection they receive from many of their family and friends. Many brand them as apostates and betrayers of their people and history. The more orthodox a background they come from the worse it is. 

There are numerous secret believers in Yeshua in the Jewish community whose entire lives and the lives of their family would be ruined and destroyed if they openly became a Christian. Often Gentiles will give them pious advice that one should be ready to sacrifice all for Yeshua while they themselves have never faced such a decision. 

The intense suffering of such Jews can lead to serious depression and blackness of a deepest dark night such as occurred in the life of  the Venerable Francis Libermann (1802-1852). The suffering and disappointment he caused his father, who was a Chief Rabbi of Saverne, played on his mind all his life. He would fall into the darkest of mental nights of anguish. He shattered his father's life long dream that his son would be a rabbi like himself. The son of Theodore Herzl a father of the Zionist movement became a believer in Yeshua and a Catholic but suffered greatly and eventually committed suicide. Hans Herzl was received into the Church at the Chapel of Our Lady of Sion, the home of the Catholic Guild of Israel, on 19 October 1924.

Not only do those who become Catholics suffer at being branded as apostates and betrayers by their fellow Jews but they then receive little compassion or understanding by many of the Gentiles in the Church they join. Many Catholics of Jewish background, especially in the past, kept that they were Jewish hidden. Those who were bold enough to maintain their Jewishness in the Church were/are looked down upon as weak brethren who are clinging to their Jewish customs like dog to its vomit or a pig to its swill. They just haven't realised their new Pauline freedom from all Jewish bondage- goes their reasoning. They also seem to think that any keeping of Jewish customs is saying that they believe they are necessary for salvation. Jews keeping Jewish customs is for sanctification not salvation.

These are some of the reasons that Jews in the Church need their own community with its own structures where they can be allowed to be fully Jewish and fully Catholic. Many Jews in the Church can end up going back and forth between the Church and Synagogue due to their double calling or vocation that cries from the depth of their being. Some will immerse themselves in the Gentile Catholicism but a part of their Jewish soul feels empty because it is not being fed. Others return to the Synagogue and immerse themselves in their Jewishness but they hunger for their Messiah and the riches of the sacramental life. Many Catholic Jews are in a sense crucified between the Church and Synagogue and misunderstood, judged and marginalised by both certain non-Messianic Jews and certain types of Gentile Christians.

Jews are an emotional warm hearted people who like to vigorously discuss and they often struggle in a rather less emotional environment of solemn Gentile piety and politeness. They often feel like they have talked too much or put their foot in it when mixing with their fellow Gentile Catholics. I think this is why when Jews from the different churches and from the Messianic movement get together in the Helsinki conversations on Jews in the Church that a special bond forms. They "get" one another. It is not the Gentile Catholics fault that they just don't "get" it, they are unable in most cases. 

A Hebrew Catholic friend of mine Ronda Chervin tells how she left a certain American Catholic community. They asked her why she was leaving. She responded "Because I want to talk". They said, "That's Ok what do you want to talk about?". she replied, "I don't want to talk about anything in particular I just want to talk!!!!". 

Hans Herzl son of the Zionist Theodore Herzl as a 12 year old British school boy.

Herzl's son Hans, mentioned above, left a suicide note that said: 

"A Jew remains a Jew, no matter how eagerly he may submit himself to the disciplines of his new religion, how humbly he may place the redeeming cross upon his shoulders for the sake of his former coreligionists, to save them from eternal damnation: a Jew remains a Jew ... I can't go on living. I have lost all trust in God. All my life I've tried to strive for the truth, and must admit today at the end of the road that there is nothing but disappointment. Tonight I have said Kaddish for my parents—and for myself, the last descendant of the family. There is nobody who will say Kaddish for me, who went out to find peace—and who may find peace soon ... My instinct has latterly gone all wrong, and I have made one of those irreparable mistakes, which stamp a whole life with failure. Then it is best to scrap it." 

He wrote this and then shot himself on the day of the funeral of his sister Paulina who had died of a drug overdose. His other sister Trude was to die in 1943 in a Nazi death camp. Maybe if he had the hope of a warm, vibrant and loving Catholic Jewish community or ordinariate supported by their fellow Gentile Catholics, he and others like him would have chosen a different end. Father Elias Friedman the founder of the Association of Hebrew Catholics saw the need of such a community to alleviate the alienation of Jews in the Church from their Jewish heritage and to end the "regime of assimilation" which had been the policy of the Catholic Church since the demise of the mother Church of Jerusalem.

Friday, April 21, 2017

Jews, Convicts and Illegitimacy: A Tasmanian Jewish Story

Joseph Solomon the President of the Hobart Synagogue and Member for the Huon in 1880 son of the convict Judah Solomon and his Jewish mistress Elizabeth Howell

The story of early Jewish settlement in Tasmania and on the Mainland of Australia is a fascinating area of study. Many Australian families are halakhically Jewish even though they are Christian by religion today. I have been researching a Tasmanian Catholic friend's genealogy and found out that she is descended from some interesting characters in the early days of Tasmania and Australia. 

 Edward Theodore Castle the father of Daisy Bell Castle

Her great-grandmother was the rather prettily named Daisy Bell Castle who was born in 1899 in the Glamorgan- Spring Bay area of coastal north eastern Tasmania near Little Swanport.  She was the daughter of Edward Castle of Green Hills and his wife Maria Radford. The Castle family were of convict ancestry and Edward's father Robert Castle was a womaniser who had 17 children with four different women. Edward was one of 9 children whom Robert had with his first wife Mary Jane Dyer who was a cousin of his from Somersetshire in England.

Temple House in Hobart around 1880 the home of the Solomon family

While the Castle family were Anglicans Edward's wife Maria Radford was of Jewish ancestry. Maria was born in the Spring Bay area in 1870. She was the illegitimate daughter of her mother Rachel Maria Radford (born 1850 in Spring Bay). Rachel at the age of 18 had an affair with a married leader in the Jewish community of Hobart Mr Joseph Solomon of Temple House in Argyle St, who would later be elected to Parliament for the Huon Valley area in 1880. He was also president of the Hobart Synagogue and came from a well-known family of Jewish convicts who became leaders in the Jewish community of Tasmania. He had married his Jewish cousin Miss Elizabeth Davis. Mr Solomon also had a son with Rachel Radford called Jacob Radford. After the affair ended after the birth of Maria, Rachel in 1871 married Matthew Poole and went on to have a large family with him. Joseph Solomon did not have any children with his legal wife.

Joseph Solomon's mother Elizabeth Howell was from an English Jewish family from Wiltshire. Her mother Mary Taylor was born in Holland as Maria Schneider and her father Joseph Howell was born as Joseph Horvilleur in Moselle in France. Joseph and his brother John Howell (Horvilleur) settled in Wiltshire taking English names. The Horvilleur family probably originally came from Horweiler (Ahrweiler) near Cologne in Germany to Moselle in France.

 Maria Frankel the mother of Rachel Maria Radford

However not only was Joseph Solomon Jewish as well as the illegitimate son of his father Judah Solomon's housekeeper but Rachel herself was Jewish and illegitimate. Her father George Radford who wasn't Jewish in religion but of Jewish ancestry through his mother was from a family that lived in Sorrell and at the age of 16 he got a young 14 year old Jewish girl pregnant. Maria Frankel lived at first with the Radford family after the death of her mother and she had a daughter with George Radford. Some time after the birth of her daughter Rachel, in 1850, Maria Frankel returned to her Jewish family into the care of her uncle David Moses of Sydney who then arranged a marriage for her in Sydney with a Jewish young man called Lewis or Louis Cohen. Maria's mother Miriam had previously died in Hobart in 1847 when Maria was about 11 years old. Her two younger siblings were taken by their uncle Elias Moses of Sydney and his wife Julia. After the death of his wife Mr Frankel had gone to America in 1847 and only returned to Australia in 1852. Maria Frankel went on to have a large family of 12 children with her Jewish husband Lewis Cohen and they for many years lived in Launceston in Tasmania (from 1855 until about 1872 when they moved to Sydney). Rachel was raised as a child of her grandparents in Sorrell and Hobart.

 Rachel Maria Radford (Mrs Rachel Poole)

Mary Ann Buxton who was the paternal grandmother of Rachel Radford (who reared her as her own daughter) was also on her mother's side Jewish. Mary Ann's mother Ellen Bott was the daughter of Jane Barlow (the daughter of  the Jew Isaac Barlow and his wife Sarah Solomon). Isaac Barlow's sister Sarah Barlow (b.1710) was married to Isaac Solomon. This Isaac Solomon (b.1710) was the grandfather of the convicts Judah and Joseph Solomon. Thus Ellen Bott and Judah Solomon were second cousins. Thus Joseph Solomon (Judah's son) and his mistress Rachel Maria Radford were third cousins twice removed. The Barlow surname originally was Bar Loeb or Loewe meaning "son of the lion".

Maria Frankel was the daughter of Louis Jacob Frankel a Polish born Jew of Breslau and his wife Miriam Sarah Moses of an English Jewish family from Bristol of whom many settled in Australia and Tasmania. The Moses family had originally come from Alsace in France in the early 18th century to Bristol and they intermarried with the Aaron family of Birmingham. Rabbi Moses Aaron was a Rabbi for the Jewish community in Birmingham in the late 18th century. The genealogies of the Moses and Nathan families are quite confusing to sort out and they would all almost seem to descend from different branches that originated in Alsace.

Louis and Miriam Frankel arrived to Tasmania on the "Calcutta" in 1842 and they settled in Hobart. Their daughter Maria or Mary Frankel was about 6 years old when they arrived from England. Maria had a brother Simeon and a sister Esther who were both younger than her. Her father himself remarried in 1857 to Miriam Mary Marks in Melbourne Victoria and they had about 5 children together. The Frankel or Fraenkel family of Breslau were devoutly orthodox Jewish and many of them Rabbinic scholars. Maria Frankel's brother Simeon Jacob Frankel was married in 1863 to Annie Cohen in Melbourne. They lived at different times in Tasmania, Sydney and Melbourne after their marriage. Maria's sister Esther Frankel married in 1860 in Sydney to Emanuel Jonas.

Miriam Sarah Moses' family were in business with and closely related to the Nathan family. Miriam was the daughter of Moses Moses (b.1765 Bristol) and Elizabeth Levy (b.1776 Bristol). Miriam's cousin Samuel Jacob Moses (son of John Moses brother of Moses Moses) had arrived in Australia with his wife Rosetta Blanche Moses (the daughter of Henry Tsebi Moses (half-brother of Moses Moses) and Esther Nathan). Rosetta was also a first cousin to Miriam. Samuel and Rosetta arrived in Hobart in 1841 a year before Louis and Miriam Frankel arrived in Hobart. It would seem that Miriam's older brother David Moses in 1827 was convicted of a crime and sent to Tasmania for 7 years where he arrived in a convict ship the "Marmion" in 1828. This David Moses should not be confused with David Lionel Moses who died in 1845 from falling off his horse. This David was younger and was the brother of Rosetta Blanche Moses and of Mrs Harriette Nathan the wife of Louis Nathan. His Jewish funeral in 1845 caused great interest in the colony.

 Julia Moses the wife of Elias Moses and daughter of Abraham Moses

Miriam Sarah Moses (Mrs Frankel)'s brother Elias Moses arrived in Sydney in 1833 and went into business with Samuel Benjamin his shipmate. Two years later in 1835 Samuel Benjamin married Miriam and Elias' sister Rachel Moses.  Elias Moses married Julia Moses the daughter of Abraham Moses. Another older sister of Miriam was Catherine Moses whose husband was Moses Benjamin a leading merchant in Melbourne and brother to Samuel Benjamin of Sydney. Moses went into business around 1838 with his brother David Benjamin and his half-brother Solomon Benjamin. Moses and Samuel Benjamin's mother was another Miriam Moses (b.1779) a daughter of Samuel Eleazar Moses. 

Miriam Sarah (nee Moses) Frankel also had a youngest brother called Moses Moses (Moss). Moses married Esther Nathan on 16 November 1842 in Sydney.  She was a daughter of Nathan Lyon Nathan (1784-1850) who was sent to Australia as 16 year old convict. He later returned to England and married there, many of his family went to Australia as free settlers. Nathan’s children and extended family were greatly involved in the establishment and growth of the Jewish communities in Australia and New Zealand. They were a prominent Jewish merchant family. Nathan's son Louis Nathan was married to Harriette Moses a sister of Rosetta Blanche Moses. The members of the extended Moses family were also great supporters of the Orthodox Jewish synagogue and communities throughout Australia.

There is much in the lives of the people here that I have touched on only very lightly and there is so much more to tell. The crimes they committed that led to their coming to Australia is also a fascinating story. The drama of Judah Solomon's wife coming from England and he refusing to give up his mistress and live with his legal wife is also an interesting story. The prettily named Anglican girl Daisy Bell Castle turned out to be of maternal Jewish ancestry and so are all her female line descendants. Daisy Bell Castle (b.1899) goes on her direct maternal line back to around 1720 and the birth of a Jewish woman called Judith Cohen who was the wife of Aaron Levy of Amsterdam and Hamburg. Judith Cohen is my friend's 8x great grandmother. 

By a strange coincidence another friend of ours who also attended our Passover Seder this year is also descended from these Jewish families of Bristol and Birmingham and I descend from Aaron and Judith too. Aaron Levy and Judith Cohen are her 6x great grandparents and they are my 7x great grandparents. Both my friends descend from their daughter Bertha (Batya) Levy who married Levy Moses of Birmingham and Bristol and I descend from her sister Rachel Levy of the Netherlands. They say there is only 6 degrees of cousinship separating most Jews and it would seem to be the case here. 

Let us redo the history of this line of women descended from Judith Cohen of Amsterdam via Miram Sarah Moses of Bristol and Hobart and their brokenness in illicit and/or difficult relationships in God's Divine Will so that healing will flow through the whole family. These stories also demonstrate that one can always come back from the disasters and problems in life and become a blessing to others. We all have an inner convict in us that is waiting for healing and freedom.

Judah Solomon and the Building of the Hobart Synagogue

Friday, April 07, 2017

The Lost Tribes of Israel and Genetics: A Discussion Group

 The Chin and Mizo claim to be the sons of Manasseh but are actually mostly from the Tribes of Asher and Gad which served under the Manassehite last King of Israel and his warrior horsemen of the tribe of Manasseh (Cuman/ Xiongnu/ Turks).

Recently I established a Lost Tribes of Israel and Genetics Discussion Group on facebook to discuss and provide sources for those interested in the search for the Lost Tribes of Israel. This has been a lifetime fascination for me and many of my family going back a number of generations. Until the advent of Genetics ydna research I held mostly to the identification of the Tribes as proposed by the British Israelites and the orthodox Jewish organisation Brit Am.

However by using the evidence of both the testing of living people and ancient dna with a study of history and the movements of people I have come to some different conclusions. I was once a great believer that the British and their crown commonwealth countries was the Ephraimite nation and company of nations. I now realise it is the Slavic Russians and Poles and other closely related Slavic peoples that make up this Ephraimite nation and company of nations. They are the birth-right Tribe of R1a Z283 ydna. The British and Irish turned out to be mainly from the Davidic House of Nathan (R1b L21). 

 Location of the Tribe of Eastern Manasseh in the 20th century. Many located in Afghanistan, Pakistan and North Western India as well as Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan and southern Russia. As well as a hot spot in south-eastern Turkey and south eastern Iran.

Until very recently I believed that Manasseh was America but now I realise Eastern Manasseh is represented by the Turkish Sultans and those eastern peoples of R1a Z93 ydna. Only a percentage of the people of modern day Turkey belong to this group (about 10-15 %) and the largest group among the Turks of Turkey belong to J2 an Assyrian/ Ishmaelite clan at about 25%. In Western Europe the Western Manassehites (R1a L664) may be found and USA may have elements of both Manassehs among them. I also discovered in this reevaluation of the genetic evidence that many Asian peoples belong to the Tribes of Asher and Gad (both of O ydna haplogroup).

 I had always believed that the Tribe of Zebulon was among the Dutch and German people and this has proved to be correct and they mainly belong to R1b U106 ydna as well as R1b L238 ydna. This Tribe of Zebulon has been in Western Europe the longest of all the Tribes of Israel. Our present Queen's father George VI may have belonged to a Royal House descended from Zebulon and recent genetic studies identify the House of Saxe- Coburg and Gotha with R1b U106 Z305. So the Queen belongs to the Royal House of David only through a female lineage but on her direct male line she is a descendant of St Peter (Sh'mon ben Yochanan bar Yonah) and Jonah the Prophet who both belonged to the Tribe of Zebulon. The French Bourbon Kings also belonged to the Tribe of Zebulon (R1b U106 Z381).

I have also always believe that the Tribe of Reuben was to be found among the French and this has proved to be true with many French people belonging to R1b U152 which is numerous in France and Northern Italy. It is interesting that both the Plantagenet Kings of England and the Hapsburgs of Austria belong to the Tribe of Reuben and are only Davidic on a female line. Both the Stuart dynasty and the Oldenburg belong to R1b L21 and are direct male line descendants of the Davidic House. However some claim that it is not clear yet whether the Oldenburg House is R1b L21 (Davidic) or U106 (Zebulonite).
The Tribe of Reuben ( R1b U152) location in the 19th Century

As one can see from the above chart the great majority of the people of the world today are descendants on the male line from Noah's son Shem with exceptions of A, B, D and E haplogroups. A large portion of Europeans and Asians are male line descendants of Abraham (IJK). The numbers descended paternally from Jacob/Israel (NOP) are also immense. The Han Chinese people are nearly made up of 55 % of  Western Gad (O3 ydna) and about 10% of Eastern Gad (O1 ydna) as well as about 15%  of the Tribe of Asher (O2 ydna) and almost 10% of the Tribe of Naphtali (N ydna) and about 1% of the Tribe of Benjamin (Q ydna). The biggest group of non-Israelite male ancestry among the Chinese is Charranite C ydna which is about 5-10 % and about 1% of Tubalite D ydna. Thus both the Chinese and Japanese are mostly Israelite peoples on their direct male lines. However the Japanese are not as Israelite as the Chinese as they have a large percentage of non-Israelite D ydna about 35 % or more. The Ainu of Japan are over 87 % D ydna descendants of Japheth. The Koreans are about 45% of Western Gad (O3 ydna) and 30% of Asher (O2 ydna) and the Koreans have about 15% of non-Israelite C ydna as well as a small percentage of D ydna. The mother of Zilpah (the mother of the patriarchs Asher and Gad) was the handmaid of Laban's wife Adinah. Zilpah and Bilhah were maternally descended from the red-bronze daughters of Adan the wife of Japheth.

Saturday, April 01, 2017

Was Yeshua a Sabbath Breaker?: A Hebrew Catholic Perspective

Many Gentile Christians read the Gospels and see that Yeshua and his disciples at times broke the Sabbath laws and conclude that Yeshua (Jesus) did not value the Sabbath and that he abolished the Jewish Sabbath observance. Some Jewish Christians try to defend Yeshua and the disciples by denying the authority of the Rabbis and claiming that Yeshua didn't break the Biblical laws of the Sabbath. This is another form of sola scriptura that rejects the authority of the community and its leadership in being the interpreters of Scripture and Tradition (Written and oral Torah). Yeshua as a devout Jew and Pharisee accepted both, he was no Sadducee or Karaite.

While most Catholics reject this sola scriptura approach for the New Testament and its leadership, they often do accept it for the Old Testament and its leadership. Yeshua himself in Matthew 23 affirmed the authority of the Scribes and the Pharisaic Rabbis as sitting on the Seat or Chair of Moses and he also affirmed in Matthew 7 that he had no intention of abolishing even the smallest part of the Torah and Prophets. If he did, then no Jew could follow him as he would be a false Messiah.

Did Yeshua and his disciples break the Sabbath laws? The answer is yes they did. However in doing this Yeshua adhered to Jewish Halachic principals. It would have been sinful for him not to break the Sabbath laws in certain situations because there are higher laws that one must obey. These higher laws are those of doing good by alleviating human need and suffering by showing compassionate mercy. 

The laws of mercy and love are higher than the laws of the Temple service just as the laws of the Temple Service are higher than the laws of the Sabbath. When they are in conflict the lower laws yield to the higher and the negative commandments to the positive. This is part of the kal v'chomer principles of Halachah. Today Pope Francis is returning Catholic teaching to this original approach to the rules and laws of the Catholic faith to its original sources in the Gospels and the teaching of Yeshua. And today we also have rigid Catholic Pharisees who oppose the Pope's reorientation to a Biblical approach rooted into the Halachic principals outlined by Yeshua himself as the priority of mercy and love.

Yeshua in laying out his approach to Halachah demonstrated, through referring to the story of David and his men eating the shewbread, that human hunger and need has a higher priority than the Temple laws. When Yeshua said that "something greater than the Temple is here", he on the level of peshat and drash was not referring to himself but to the law of mercy (doing good to others including animals) which is greater than the laws of the Temple service. However in no way did Yeshua intend to abolish the Sabbath laws but he did articulate with a kal v'chomer approach when it was lawful to break such rules when a higher priority was appropriate.

When Yeshua said that "the son of man is Lord of the Sabbath" he was not on the level of peshat (literal) and drash (homelectical) referring to himself as the Son of Man as he does in other places but referring to mankind. He is saying 'Man is master of the Sabbath' which complements 'The Sabbath was made for man not man for the Sabbath'. The more mystical interpretations of these sayings after reflecting on who Yeshua was as Messiah is a valid one and gives us greater spiritual insight. However we must first understand the levels of peshat and drash and what Yeshua was actually saying and how his Jewish audience was understanding him at that time. 

In Luke 14 at a dinner held by a prominent Pharisee leader who may have been Gamaliel himself Yeshua defended his Halachic argument about doing good or showing mercy on the Sabbath through healing. It would seem Gamaliel and the other Pharisees present agreed with his argument or at least had no reponse to it. Gamaliel later would defend the Apostles and St Clement reveals that Gamaliel became a secret disciple of Yeshua with the permission of St Peter in order to help the persecuted believers. Gamaliel who was the Nasi (Davidic president) and Av Bet Din (Chief Rabbi) of the Sanhedrin and thus the one who sat on the Seat of Moses thus defers to the higher authority of the Seat of Peter.

Any future Hebrew Catholic or Catholic Jewish community will have to use these Halachic principals as established by the Messiah, just as Hasidic Jews accept that of their Rebbes. The Sacrifice of the Mass is the Temple service of the New Covenant and thus has a priority over Sabbath laws. Thus if one cannot walk to Mass or Adoration on Shabbat then it would be permissible for a Catholic Jew to travel by car, train or bus. Just as it is permissible for a Catholic to miss Sunday Mass if they have to care for someone who is ill. We see an example of this in the famous story of Schneur Zalman of Liadi (the founder of Chabad Hasidim) on Yom Kippor, leaving his prayers, chopping wood and lighting a fire in order to help a woman who had just given birth. Thus the Hebrew Catholic should put doing good for others as the first priority. 

Yeshua taught that it is not only if a life is endangered that one can break the Sabbath and Temple laws, but if it will alleviate the suffering or distress of a person it is appropriate to do so immediately and this is a mitzvah which one should run to perform with joy. Pope Francis is presenting to us the terrible spiritual and emotional suffering of many Catholics in broken marriages and second marriages and asking us to put the priority of mercy and alleviating suffering above canon law. He is asking the priests and Bishops supported by the laity to run with joy to accompany these sufferers in their suffering and to do whatever they can to help alleviate that suffering of soul. This is nothing new but a return to the Gospels and the teaching of Yeshua which is taken to a new level of understanding in the ongoing development of doctrine in the Catholic Church (as articulated by Blessed Cardinal Newman) under the guidance of the Holy Spirit and the one who sits in the Chair or Seat of Peter. 

Of course we need to always keep in mind that Jewish Sabbath observances are not salvific but a way of sanctity for Jewish people given by God himself at Sinai. However some form of Sabbath rest observance is universal as the Sabbath was given in the beginning to mankind to observe and the Church allows Gentile Catholics to fulfill this universal observance of a day of Rest on Sundays.While the outward observance of Halachah (the Way) will differ for Jews and Gentiles, the principal underlying them apply to both.